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Unit 1 AMH 2020

From the end of the civil war to the turn of the century
Corporations grew in size and power
All of the following factors helped accelerate economic growth after the civil war EXCEPT
The use of prison labor by railroad companies
Interconnected transportation and communications networks were essential to the origins of the Second Industrial Revolution in the United States because
They facilitated the emergence of a national and even international markets for American goods and services
A transcontinental railroad was not built before the civil war because
North-south sectional differences prevented congress from selecting a route
The first transcontinental railroad
Was built by the central pacific and the Union Pacific railroads
One of the main reasons that electric motors were significant to the industrialization of the late nineteenth century was that they
Freed factories to locate wherever they wished, and not just by waterfalls and coal deposits
The invention of electric motors did all of the following EXCEPT
Led to the bankruptcy of the Edison electric illuminating company
Thomas Alva Edison invented the
First light bulb
The Pennsylvania oil rish
Outweighed, in economic importance, the California gold rush of a decade before
Which of the following best accounts for he success of standard oil?
Its corporate structure–known as vertical integration– allowed the company to grow tremendously
Holding companies
Are firms that control the stock of other companies
“Trusts” like Rockefeller’s standard oil trust were vulnerable because they
Were appealing targets for prosecution on the grounds of monopoly or restraint of trade
When it came to steel, Andrew Carnegie did all the following EXCEPT
Have technical expertise in it
J. Pierpont Morgan is distinguished from business leaders such as Andrew Carnegie and john d. Rockefeller because he was the only one
Who came from an elite, privileged background
During the gilded age, the rich were getting richer qns
Many other people were at least better off
For industrial workers in gilded age america
Working and living conditions remained precarious
All of the following statements are reasons why child labor was problematic EXCEPT
Child laborers took well-paying jobs from legal immigrants
The great railroad strike of 1877 was provoked by
Wage cuts that followed a depression
The workingmen’s party of California
Was based in anti-Chinese sentiment
The great railroad strike of 1877
Ended when the workers, who lacked organized bargaining power, returned to work
The national labor union
Was influential in getting congress to enact an eight-hour workday for federal employees
Why was there a growth of craft unions during the civil war?
The war sparked an increased demand for skilled labor
The knights of labor
Called for men and women to have equal pay for equal work
The greatest growth of the knights of labor took place
Under the leadership of Terence powderly, when the union had several strikes against the railroads
The knights of labor declined for all the following reasons EXCEPT
Its leader Terence Powderly died
The haymarket affair
Was blamed on seven anarchist leaders despite a lack of evidence
The American federation of labor
Was primarily concerned with securing concrete economic gains
Membership in the American federation of labor at first
Grew slowly
How did the AFL differ from the knights of labor?
The AFL was a federation of national organizations, each of which retained a large degree of its autonomy, while the knights organization was more centralized
The homestead strike
Was waged against a Carnegie company
All of the following statements are true of the Pinkertons EXCEPT
They won every battle they were sent into
Violence erupted at the homestead works in 1892 when
Henry frick tried to break a strike by bringing in pinkertons
Why were mail cars connected to the Pullman cars during the Pullman strike?
To justify federal intervention to end the strike by allowing railroad executives to claim the strike interfered with the mail
President Grover Cleveland’s response to the Pullman strike was to
Send federal troops to keep the trains running
Marxism, one strain of socialism, was imported to the United States mainly by
Daniel de Leon
Was the leading figure in the socialist labor party
Which of the following statements about the socialist party of America is not true?
Its support was confined to industrial workers in the northeast
The state that gave the highest percentage vote to the socialist presidential candidate in 1912 was
The industrial workers of the world
Had its origin in the mining and lumber camps of the west
William d. “Big bill” Haywood
Was the leader of the industrial workers of the world
The IWW was effectively destroyed when it
Opposed American involvement in world war 1
Joe hill, the labor organizer, was NOT
Convicted of treason
The major prophet of the new south gospel was
Henry w. Grady
The new south gospel emphasized all the following EXCEPT
Women’s rights
Proponents of creating a “new south” argued that the confederacy lost the civil war because
It relied too much on king cotton
Proponents of the new south believed that the south should
In the late 1800s, the south experienced major increases in the production of all of the following areas EXCEPT
The American tobacco company
Dominated the u.s. Tobacco industry by the twentieth century
Why was Alabama named the “Pittsburgh of the south”?
It was an iron center
Who was a prominent southern tobacco executive in the south during the late nineteenth century?
James Buchanan Duke
King cotton survived the civil war and expanded over new acreate
Because traditional overplanting of the crop continued
The postwar south suffered from an acute shortage of
Was a term used to refer to the new south political leadership that meant to depict that leadership as reactionary
Perhaps the ultimate paradox of the bourbons’ rule was that their paragons of white supremacy tolerated
A lingering black voice in politics
Under bourbon rule in the south, state spending for public education
Dramatically declined
The very poor generally did not migrate to the west because
They generally could not afford the expense of transportation, land, and supplies
All of the following groups were prominent in the west during the late nineteenth century EXCEPT
Black migrants to the west were called exodusters because
They were often making their exodus from the south
As many as 25 percent of the cowboys who participated in the Texas cattle drives were
African American
What was a “fifty-niner”?
A miner who came to Colorado following several new discoveries made in 1859
The comstock lode refers to
A mining discovery of gold and silver in Nevada
Six states were created from the western territories in the years 1889-1890. These states were not admitted before 1889 because
Democrats in congress were reluctant to create states out of territories that were heavily republican
Why was the fort Laramie treaty signed in 1851 significant to westward expansion?
It allowed white emigrants to travel on the trails of plains Indians unmolested
Following the 1867 “Report on the Condition of the Indian Tribes,” congress decided that the best way to end the Indian wars was to
Persuade the Indians to live on out-of-the-way reservations
In the battle at the Little Bighorn river in 1876
Some 2,500 Indians annihilated a detachment of 210 soldiers
The Indian tribe that defeated Custer and put up the greatest resistance to u.s. domination was the
By the late nineteenth century, chief Joseph of the nez perce Indians believed
The time had come to stop fighting and put a stop to his people’s needless deaths
Why was Helen hunt Jackson’s book A Century of Dishonor so influential?
It affected American attitudes toward Indians similar to how Uncle Tom’s Cabin mobilized the abolitionist movement a generation earlier
In 1877, president Rutherford Hayes addressed the American approach to dealing with native Americans, saying
“Indian wars have had their origin in broken promises and acts of injustice on our part”
What was the purpose of the Dawes severalty act?
It sought to “Americanize” Indians by dealing with them as individuals
The first great cowtown was
Abilene, Kansas
“Cowtown” refers to
Towns that grew up in the west as a result of the expanding cattle industry
As railroads spread in Texas and across the plains, the cattle business
Spread with them
Joseph glidden
Perfected the invention of barbed wire
The factor most responsible for making farming on the plains more difficult was its
Unforgiving environment and mercurial weather
Congress passed the homestead act
To encourage settlement of the western lands
This export crop spurred growth in agriculture in the west during the late nineteenth century
The fight for survival in the trans-Mississippi west made men and women
More equal partners than were their eastern counterparts
In much of the nineteenth century, women in Texas were legally prohibited from
Serving in juries
The 1890 census reporter that
The frontier era in American development was over
The historian Frederick Jackson Turner argued that
The frontier shaped America’s national character
The so-called frontier thesis is problematic because, among other things, it
Exaggerated the homogenizing effect of the frontier environment and virtually ignored the role of women
Why was the development of cast-iron and steel-frame construction techniques significant to the growth of cities?
They allowed developers to erect high-rise buildings
Which region of the United States had the greatest proportion of urban dwellers?
The far west
One of the reasons mass transit was significant to developing cities was because
It allowed large numbers of people to become commuters and live away from the central city
By 1900, all of the following technologies had helped transform mass transit EXCEPT
Gasoline-powered buses
Tenement houses in New York City
Had higher mortality rates than among the general population
As a result of overcrowding, sanitation, and ventilation problems in tenements
The mortality rate among the urban poor was much higher than the general population
All of the following contributed to epidemics, disease, and high mortality rates in the growing cities EXCEPT
The banishment of animals to outside city limits
The public health officials and municipal engineers who tried to clean up the city and its public health dangers were called
Sanitary reformers
One advantage of the large amount of animal waste generated in early cities was that it
Fertilized vegetable farms outside major cities
With the move of American cities toward regular trash-collection services, by 1900 what percentage of cities provided this service?
94 percent
What do cholera, typhoid, and yellow fever all have in common?
They are all water-related diseases
In 1890, New York City had twice as many Irish as
After 1890, most immigrants were
From southern and Eastern Europe
Ellis island was located right outside
New York City
The Chinese exclusion act of 1882 was significant in American immigration history because it
Was the first federal law to restrict immigration on the basis of race and class
“Nativists” believed that
Immigrants threatened traditional American culture
All of the following motivated nativists EXCEPT
Advocacy of multiculturalism
The exclusion of chinese immigrants
Originally called for a ten-year term
Angel island was
The equivalent of Ellis island located offshore from San Francisco
Middle- and upper-class urban families spent much of their leisure time
Together at home playing games or reading books
All of the following statements about newspapers in the late nineteenth century are true EXCEPT
They usually did not support either of the national political parties
Around 1900, saloons did all of the following EXCEPT
Serve as a great place for immigrant men to meet women
One of the reasons parks and outdoor recreation became popular in the late nineteenth century was because
Concerns over congestion and disease led many to seek ways to restore their vitality and improve their health
In the late nineteenth century, the least likely place you would find a woman spending her leisure time was
At a saloon
Frederick Law Olmsted is most famous for designing
Great urban parks in America
Why were bicycles especially popular with women?
They allowed women to break free of Victorian restrictions by offering opportunities for freedom and exercise
Why did so many of the urban working poor often seek recreation and leisure on street corners and front stoops?
They did not have sufficient free time or money to enjoy many of the other leisure and entertainment options
Facing severe restrictions in their free time, married working women pfyen
Found fellowship with other women on the public streets while tending to other responsibilities
Young urban women eager for recreation often encountered far more obstacles than men because
Parents and authorities tried to limit their access to “cheap amusements”
All of the following statements about football are true EXCEPT
It was invented by James Naismith in Springfield, Massachusetts
Dr. James Naismith invented
The game of basketball
All of the following emerged as popular spectator sports with mass appeal in urban areas in the late nineteenth century EXCEPT
Baseball could lay claim to being the most democratic sport in nineteenth-century America because
People of all social classes attended the games
The first professional baseball team was the
Cincinnati red stockings
Herbert spencer
Coined the phrase “survival of the fittest”
A strict social Darwinist would object to all of the following EXCEPT
A governmental policy of “hands off” in regard to business
William graham sumner
Argued in his book “folkways” that it was a mistake for the government to interfere with established customs
The main idea of reform Darwinism was that
Cooperation, not competition, would best promote progress
Lester frank ward’s version of the reform Darwinism argued all of the following EXCEPT
Humanity cannot control the process of evolution
Why was Lester frank ward’s “dynamic sociology” considered a challenge to William graham sumner’s “social Darwinism”?
Ward argued that cooperation among people better promoted progress, while sumner believed in competition
When mark Twain and Charles Dudley warner labeled the post-civil war era the “gilded age”, they implied that it was characterized by
Widespread greed and corruption
One of the most important reasons that voter turnout was so high during the gilded age was that
Due to patronage and corruption by political machines, almost every government job was subject to the results of the latest election
Voter turnout during the gilded age was commonly
Between 70 and 80 percent
Which of the following would most likely have been a gilded age republican
A Prohibitionist
Which of the following would most likely have been a gilded age democrat
An Irish immigrant
The stalwarts
Were led by Roscoe conkling
Which of the following best describes Rutherford b. Hayes and civil service reform?
Hayes did not get civil service legislation through congress, but he set up his own rules for merit appointments
Chester a. Arthur did not win a second term in 1884 because
Republican Party leaders were not pleased with his first-term record and did not nominate him to run for a second term
The Pendleton civil service act
Provided for appointment to a number of government jobs on the basis of competitive exams
As president, Chester Arthur proved to be
Surprisingly competent and independent
The mulligan letters tied former speaker of the house James Blaine to
The bribes of rich railroad barons
During the campaign for the presidential election of 1884, many prominent republican leaders and supporters left the party because
Letters were discovered linking candidate James g. Blaine to the railroads
Mugwumps were centered in
Large cities and major universities in the northeast
When a republican supporter of James Blaine made a reference to the Democratic Party as the party of “rum, Romanism, and rebellion,” it hurt James blaine’s presidential campaign because
Democrats spread the word that Blaine was anti-Irish and anti-catholic despite his public claims to the contrary
Grover Cleveland
Saw government’s role as strictly limited
Who of the following was named the father of an illegitimate child?
Grover Cleveland
Why was the interstate commerce commission created?
To regulate railroads
Why did president cleveland’s support of tariff reform hurt his reelection chances in 1888?
It inspired business leaders who supported high tariffs to donate millions of dollars to the republican campaign to defeat Cleveland
To fend off cleveland’s efforts to reduce the tariff, _______ gave the republicans over $3 million in the election of 1888
Business pwners
All of the following laws were passed during the Harrison administration EXCEPT the
Pendleton civil service reform act
Benjamin Harrison lost the popular vote in the 1888 election. How was he able to win the presidency?
He earned a majority of the electoral votes
The McKinley tariff of 1890
Raised duties on manufactured goods
Commodity prices during the gilded age declined in large part because of
Overproduction and international competitor in world markets
Passage of the “granger laws”
Laid a foundation for stronger legislation to follow
The Supreme Court decision Munn v. Illinois was significant to understanding the power of government to regulate industry because
It upheld the right of state and local governments to regulate industry essential to the public welfare
The independent national party
Was more commonly known as the greenback party
What distinguished the farmers’ alliances from the granger movement?
The grange was a national organization that tended to attract more prosperous farmers, while the alliances were grassroots organizations filled with struggling farmers
Mary elizabeth lease
Was a Kansas alliance leader
All of the following were included in the 1892 Omaha platform of the people’s party EXCEPT
A return to the gold standard
In the presidential election of 1892, the populist candidate
Won twenty-two electoral votes
Why did the populists endorse an eight-hour workday and immigration restrictions as part of their 1892 platform?
They were hoping to win support from urban factory workers to complement their agrarian base
One cause of the 1893 depression was the failure of
The Philadelphia and reading railroad
In the depression of 1893, unemployment hovered around
20 percent
In the 1896 campaign, William jennings Bryan
Spoke and campaigned all over the country
“You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold!” This statement was made by
William Jennings Bryan
In the presidential election of 1896, all of the following may have applied to William Jennings Bryan EXCEPT that he
Won after gaining the support of Theodore Roosevelt
One of the main reasons McKinley defeated Bryan in the election of 1896 was that
Bryan got little support from factory workers in the cities
The Mississippi plan of disenfranchisement included all of the following EXCEPT a(n)
Provision disqualifying anyone who owned less than $300 in personal property
In the case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court
Upheld a southern segregation law
Why was the Supreme Court’s ruling in plessy v. Ferguson so significant?
Segregation was permitted on the basis of establishing “separate but equal” facilities
The lynching of blacks in the south
Increased at about the same time that Jim Crow laws spread throughout the south
Who was the first president of the national association of colored women?
Mary church Terrell
Booker t. Washington
Offered an indirect endorsement of segregation
What was the aid of W.E.B. Du Bois’s opposition to booker t. Washington
Du bois objected to Washington’s emphasis on vocational education for blacks and advocated ceaseless political agitation against discrimination and segregation
Economic prosperity was returning to the country by 1897 because of the
Inflationary impact of various gold discoveries around the world

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