To whom the message is intended for.
Translating the message from its symbol form into meaning
What causes internal disruption in decoding process
The receivers lack of attention or by bias against the sender or by competing messages.
What causes external disruption in decoding process
By loud sounds or illegal words.
Verbal and nonverbal responses of the reciever. Helps the sender know that the message was reciever and understood. Ex: am I making myself clear? Is there anything you don’t understand?
Happens when people miss each other with their meanings. Can lead to major miscommunication because people assume that meanings are contained in words.
Bypassing, lack of language skill, distractions.
Frame or frames
Everything you see and feel in the world is translated through individual frame or refrence
emotional, interference, physical distractions , and digital interruptions.
3-x-3 writing process
Prewriting, drafting, and revising
Analyze, anticipate, adapt. Prepares you to write.
Research, organize, draft. Investigate other kinds of business that use single lines for customers.
Edit, proofread, evaluate.
How much time should take place in the 3-x-3 process?
Adapting your message to the receiver’s needs means putting yourself in that persons shoes.
What digital collaboration tools support team writing
E-mail, instant messaging and texting, wikis, track changes and other tools, Web and telephone conferencing, Google docs and other collaboration software.
When to use Informal research methods
Drafting emails, memos, letters, informational reports, and oral presentations
Informal research methods
Search your company files, talk with the boss, interview the target audience, conduct an informal survey
When to use formal research
Long reports and complex business problems
Formal research methods
Access electronic sources, search manually, investigate primary sources, conduct scientific experiments
What is the regarded as the greatest failing of business writers
Difference between indirect and direct
Is where the main idea is placed.
The main idea first followed by details, explanation, or evidence.
When to use direct strategy
When you expect the reader to be pleased, mildly interested, or at worst neutral
The direct method(frontloading) 3 advantages
Saves the readers time,
Sets a proper frame of mind,
The indirect method 3 benefits
Respects the feelings of the audience
Facilitates a fair hearing
Minimizes a negative reaction
When to use Indirect strategy
expect the audience to be uninterested, unwilling, displeased, or hostile.
When does indirect work best
Bad news, ideas that require persuasion, and sensitive news
Get your thoughts down now and refine them in later versions
The final phase of 3-x-3 writing process
Focuses on editing, proofreading, and evaluating
Providing content and sentence structure of your message
Correcting it’s grammar, spelling, punctuation, format, and mechanics.
Analyzing whether your message achieves it’s purpose
Advantages of concise business messages
Save reading time
Easier to read and comprehend
Making your message clear
Message that is immediately understood
Keep it short and simple
Is composed of informal words with arbitrary and extravagantly changed meanings.quickly go out of fashion because they are no longer appealing when everyone begins to understand them.
Ex: of slang words
Snarky, lousy, blowing the budget, bombed, getting burned
Technical expressions that have become fashionable and often are meant to impress rather than express.
Ex: of buzzwords
Optimize, incentivize, innovative, leveraging, right-size, and paradigm shift.
Empty space on a page
Best way to evaluate your finished written message
Is through feedback
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