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Unit 4 AP gov review

To be elected president one must receive more
electoral votes.
If the electoral college fails to give any presidential candidate a majority, the election of the president is determined by
the House of Representatives.
A constitutional amendment to clarify the way votes are cast in the electoral college was necessary because
in the past the Constitution had not been explicit in indicating which of the two electoral votes was for president, and which was for vice president.
Going on official state visits to other countries, decorating war heroes, and dedication parks are all examples of the presidents’ role as
Head of State.
As chief executive, the president is constitutionally bound to
enforce the acts of congress, the judgments of federal courts, and treaties signed by the United States.
The number of political appointments available to the president
is limited to cabinet and subcabinet jobs, federal judgeships, agency heads, and two thousand lesser jobs.
A signing statement
is a written declaration that a president may make when signing a bill into law regarding the law’s enforcement.
If the president is dissatisfied with the performance of a member of the cabinet, the most drastic step possible against that member would be to
The granting of release from the punishment for a crime is called
a pardon.
As commander-in-chief, the president is
supreme commander of the military forces of the U.S. and of the state National Guard units when they are called into federal service.
The requirement that the president report to Congress within 48 hours of sending troops into hostilities and then obtain the approval of Congress within 60 days is established by the
War Powers Resolution.
As chief diplomat,
the president dominates American foreign policy, a role that has been supported many times by the Supreme Court.
Before a treaty can become legally binding,
the treaty must be presented to the Senate, where they may be modified and must be approved by a two-thirds vote. Then, the president can approve the senatorial version of the treaty.
Executive agreements are
international agreements made by the president, without senatorial ratification, with the head of a foreign state.
The State of the Union message is
an annual message to Congress in which the president proposes a legislative program. The message is addressed not only to Congress but also to the American people and to the world.
If the president uses a veto, he or she
says no to legislation by which the White House returns a bill unsigned to Congress with a veto message attached.
A pocket veto
is a special veto exercised by the chief executive after a legislative body has adjourned. Bills not signed by the chief executive die after a specified period of time. If Congress wishes to reconsider such a bill, it must be reintroduced in the following session of Congress.
George W. Bush exercised his power of the veto in the summer of 2006 on legislation dealing with
stem cell research.
The line-item veto
is the power of an executive to veto individual lines or items within a piece of legislation without vetoing the entire bill.
A power created for the president through laws passed by Congress is called
Statutory Power.
“Going Public” means that presidents
have additional power through the ability to persuade and manipulate public opinion.
President Lincoln
suspended civil liberties and called state militias into national service.
An executive order
represents the presidents’ legislative power. All executive orders must be published in the Federal Register.
Executive privilege
is the right of executive officials to withhold information from or to refuse to appear before a legislative committee.
In the United States v. Nixon, the Supreme Court ruled that
Nixon had to hand over the tapes of recordings of conversations held in the Oval Office. The court held that executive privilege could not be used to prevent evidence from being heard in criminal proceedings.
According to the Constitution, impeachment
begins in the House, which impeaches the federal officer involved. If the house votes to impeach the officer, it draws up articles of impeachment and submits them to the Senate, which conducts the actual ritual.
In the history of the United States, no president has ever
actually been impeached and also convicted-and thus removed from office- by means of this process.
Informal advisors to the president are called the
Kitchen Cabinet.
The cabinet is an advisory group selected by the president to aid in making decisions. The cabinet includes the heads of fifteen executive departments and others named by the president.
The White House Office, the National Security Council, and the Office of Management and Budget are all part of the
Executive Office of the President.
The office that works most closely with the president is the
White House Office.
The office of Management and Budget is
a division of the Executive office of the president. The OMB assists the president in preparing the annual budget, clearing and coordination departmental agency budgets, and supervising the administration of the federal budget.
The Nation Security Council is a link between
the president’s key foreign and military advisers and the president.
Presidential candidates have asked individuals to join the ticket as vice presidential candidates for all of the following reasons
balance the ticket to attract groups of voters, appease party faction.
According to the 25th amendment, if a president’s ability to discharge his or her normal functions is in question and he or she is unable to communicate,
a majority of the cabinet, including the vice president, can declare that fact to Congress. Then the VP serves as acting president until the president resumes normal duties.
Presidential pardons are a constitutional power given to the president that
is a release from the punishment for or legal consequences of a crime.
Bureaucracy is the name give to
a large organization that is structured hierarchically to carry out specific functions.
The acquisitive model of bureaucracy holds that
top-level bureaucrats will always try to expand, or at least to avoid any reductions in, the size of their budgets.
The monopolistic model of bureaucracy states
that bureaucracies are similar to monopolistic business firms. Lack of competition in either circumstance leads to inefficient and costly operations.
The number of federal government employees has
remained roughly the same.
Which of the following is not one of the four major types of structures within the executive branch?
(four major types are cabinet departments, independent executive agencies, independent regulatory agencies, and government corporations)
The cabinet departments can be described in management terms as
line organizations.
The only cabinet department not headed by a secretary is the
Justice Department which is headed by the attorney general.
Independent executive agencies
are bureaucratic organizations that are not located within a department but report directly to the president, who appoints their chief officials.
Independent regulatory agencies
were set up because Congress felt it was unable to handle the complexities and technicalities required to carry out specific laws in the public interest; these entities were give executive, legislative, and judicial functions by Congress.
The Central Intelligence agency, the environmental protection agency, and the national aeronautical and space administration are examples of
independent executive agencies.
The Federal Reserve, the securities and exchange commission, and the national labor relations board are all examples of independent
regulatory agencies.
When the industry that is being regulated gains control over the agency that is supposed to regulate it, it is the process called
Capture.
Amtrak, the U.S. postal service, and the Tennessee valley authority are examples of
government corporations.
The spoils system can be viewed as
the awarding of government jobs to political supporters and friends.

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