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Unit 6 – Chapter 12

1) Which of the following did the framers of the Constitution conceive of as the center of policymaking in America?
2) The foremost attraction for the job of serving in Congress is

A) a salary four times the income of the typical American family.
B) generous retirement benefits.
C) the power to make key public policy decisions.
D) travel benefits.
E) employment opportunities after leaving office.

3) Which of the following is NOT one of the perquisites which go with the job of being a member of Congress?

A) a salary of over $150,000
B) subsidized housing in the Virginia or Maryland suburbs of D.C.
C) free use of the mails to communicate with constituents
D) free office space in Washington, D.C., and in the constituency from which elected
E) a budget to support office staff

4) ________ privileges refer to the free use of the mails enjoyed by Congress.

A) Franking
B) Conmail
C) Junket
D) Procurement
E) E-mail

5) The most prominent characteristic of a Congressperson?s job is

A) prestige.
B) hard work.
C) high pay.
D) travel.
E) the 30-hour work week.

6) A myth about members of Congress is that they

A) generally are educated and come from high-status occupations.
B) tend to develop policy specialties.
C) are especially effective in carrying out their constituent service.
D) are overpaid, underworked, corrupt, and ineffective.
E) are overwhelmingly male.

7) The United States House of Representatives has ________ members.

A) 638
B) 100
C) 435
D) 80
E) 535

8) The United States Senate has ________ members.

A) 50
B) 100
C) 435
D) 438
E) 535

9) How many senators are elected from each state?

A) one
B) two
C) four
D) it depends on a state?s population
E) the same number as it has electors in the electoral college

10) Which of the following is TRUE about the minimum age requirements for members of Congress set forth in the Constitution?

A) One must be at least 21 years of age to serve in the House of Representatives.
B) One must be at least 30 years of age to serve in the Senate.
C) One must be at least 35 years of age to serve in either the House or the Senate.
D) There are no age requirements for members of Congress.
E) The age requirements are the same for the House and the Senate.

11) The members of the Senate closely reflect the nation in terms of

A) race.
B) gender.
C) economic status.
D) prior occupation.
E) none of the above

12) The income and occupations of members of Congress

A) typically reflect the pluralistic nature of American society.
B) are very close to the average found among their constituency.
C) would, for the most part, make them members of the elite in American society.
D) have no real impact on public policymaking.
E) places over 90 percent of them in the millionaire businessperson class.

13) African Americans constitute ________ of the United States Senate.

A) less than 10 percent
B) approximately 35 percent
C) roughly half
D) well over half
E) about 20 percent

14) In terms of religion, most members of Congress are

A) Catholic.
B) Jewish.
C) Protestant.
D) born-again Christians.
E) atheists.

15) The most common prior occupation for members of Congress is

A) business.
B) law.
C) education.
D) public service.
E) state legislator.

16) Relative to the total population, the most underrepresented group in Congress is

A) African Americans.
B) Hispanics.
C) women.
D) Jews.
E) homosexuals.

17) Overall, members of Congress can ________ of the American people.

A) possibly claim substantive representation, but not descriptive representation
B) possibly claim descriptive representation, but not substantive representation
C) claim both substantive and descriptive representation
D) claim neither substantive nor descriptive representation
E) possibly claim both substantive and descriptive representation

18) Millionaire Senator Edward Kennedy sponsoring a bill to help the poor and disadvantaged would be an example of

A) descriptive representation.
B) substantive representation.
C) elite representation.
D) constituent representation.
E) franking privileges.

19) Incumbents are those

A) already holding office.
B) running for office for the first time.
C) who have been defeated in an election.
D) retired members of Congress.
E) running for an office.

20) In most congressional elections, challengers

A) outspend an incumbent.
B) win.
C) are better known than incumbents.
D) lose.
E) spend roughly as much money as incumbents.

21) The single most important advantage to someone trying to get elected to Congress is

A) being an incumbent.
B) having more money to spend on campaigning.
C) being charismatic and photogenic.
D) having a clean record.
E) winning the endorsement of the top leaders of their party.

22) Comparison between members of the House and Senate concerning the impact of incumbency on their reelection chances shows that one of the reasons that senators have a smaller advantage is because they

A) have become over-specialized as policymakers.
B) are more likely to be held accountable on controversial issues.
C) are less visible.
D) have longer terms that increase the chance of scandal.
E) represent more homogenous constituencies.

23) Reasons that incumbent senators have greater competition than incumbent members of the House include all of the following EXCEPT

A) an entire state is more diverse than a congressional district, providing more of a base for
B) senators have less personal contact with their constituencies.
C) voters are less likely to know the issue positions of their senators than their representatives.
D) senators tend to draw more visible challengers.
E) senate challengers are better funded than House challengers.

24) Which of these candidates would most likely get elected?

A) a representative running for reelection
B) a senator running for reelection
C) an incumbent representative challenging a senator
D) a challenger
E) an incumbent

25) Compared to members of the House, senators are

A) more likely to have personal contact with their constituents.
B) more likely to face difficult reelection opponents.
C) less likely to face difficult reelection opponents.
D) less likely to use television in their reelection campaigns.
E) none of the above

26) Studies have shown that presidential ________ in an election have little effect on the success of the party’s candidates for the House and Senate.

A) coattails
B) junkets
C) vetoes
D) headwinds
E) scandals

27) Which of the following is NOT one of the three primary activities that members of Congress engage in to increase the probability of their reelection?

A) advertising
B) credit-claiming
C) position-taking
D) oversight
E) None of the above; oversight is a form of position-taking.

28) An example of casework by a member of Congress is

A) writing a newsletter to send out to constituents.
B) helping a constituent gain citizenship.
C) voting for a bill desired by constituents.
D) working with a caucus on a public policy that affects his or her constituents.
E) all of the above

29) The pork barrel and casework are examples of

A) opportunities for credit-claiming by members of Congress.
B) advertising techniques.
C) descriptive representation.
D) position-taking.
E) congressional continuity.

30) An especially important asset for incumbents running for reelection is their

A) service to constituents.
B) voting records.
C) support by party leaders in Congress.
D) presidential support.
E) invisibility.

31) The ________ is the list of federal projects, grants, and contracts available to cities, businesses, colleges, and institutions which members of Congress seek to locate in their district to promote the interests of their constituency.

A) casework
B) pork barrel
C) frank
D) junket
E) Treasurer?s register

32) Federal grants and contracts that members of Congress try to obtain for their constituents are collectively referred to as

A) the pork barrel.
B) casework.
C) public service.
D) perquisites.
E) affirmative action.

33) Members of Congress engage in each of the following activities that increase the probability of their reelections EXCEPT

A) advertising.
B) party voting.
C) credit-claiming.
D) position taking.
E) spend much of their time away from Congress and in their home districts.

34) What accounts for the success of congressional candidates?

A) their highly representative policy positions
B) presidential coattails
C) economic forces
D) advertising, credit-claiming, and position-taking.
E) good looks

35) Which of the following is NOT true about incumbents?

A) They usually win elections.
B) They usually have more money than their challengers.
C) They usually have higher name recognition and visibility than their opponents.
D) They usually face very tough challengers, especially in races for the House.
E) They usually have their party?s endorsement.

36) Which of the following statements about those who challenge incumbent members of the House is TRUE?

A) They are usually not well-known.
B) They are usually experienced legislators.
C) They usually have a well-established organizational backing.
D) They tend to be well-financed.
E) They usually conduct public opinion polls and only run if they have a good chance of winning.

37) In the House races of 2004, the typical incumbent outspent the typical challenger by

A) 2 to 1.
B) 4 to 1.
C) 6 to 1.
D) 15 to 1.
E) 20 to 1.

38) Which of the following statements about money in Congressional elections is FALSE?

A) It costs more money to elect a president than to elect a member of Congress.
B) Most of the money spent in congressional elections comes from individuals.
C) About a quarter of the funds raised in general election contests come from PACs.
D) Political Action Committees often make contributions after the election.
E) PACs often switch sides and give money to the candidate they originally opposed.

39) The role of party identification in voters? choices in congressional campaigns is

A) extremely important, and increasingly so.
B) moderately important, even though party identification is not as strong as it used to be.
C) slightly important in a few districts, not important in most others.
D) not important at all, and never really has been.
E) much less significant than in presidential campaigns.

40) Party loyalty at the voting booth is

A) stronger than it was a generation ago.
B) no longer a good indication of voting behavior.
C) still a good predictor of voting behavior.
D) almost nonexistent today.
E) greater among Democrats than among Republicans.

41) House incumbents typically receive

A) about the same amount of contributions from PACs as challengers.
B) less from PACs than challengers.
C) much more from PACs as challengers.
D) generous support from their party campaign committees.
E) none of the above.

42) On average, most of the money raised by a candidate for Congress comes from

A) political parties.
B) individual contributions.
C) the candidate?s own savings.
D) Political Action Committees.
E) loans.

43) A single Political Action Committee

A) has no limit on the amount of money it can spend on a candidate.
B) can at most account for only a small percentage of a winner?s total spending.
C) usually puts all its efforts into one candidate.
D) can gain the most influence by giving money to candidates who disagree with them.
E) can make or break a candidate in a particularly close congressional election.

44) When Political Action Committees contribute money to members of Congress they are usually seeking

A) access to policymakers.
B) votes on specific legislation.
C) to install a preferred challenger in office.
D) to create a more pluralistic Congress.
E) to literally buy opposing legislators? votes.

45) Which of the following statements about the role of money in congressional elections is FALSE?

A) Outspending your opponent by a large margin is no guarantee of success.
B) The more challengers spend, the more votes they receive.
C) Challengers usually outspend incumbents.
D) In open seats, the candidate who spends the most usually wins.
E) Incumbents benefit less from campaign spending than challengers.

46) All of the following may increase the likelihood that an incumbent is defeated EXCEPT

A) national political ?tidal waves.?
B) redistricting.
C) campaign funding.
D) scandals.
E) a strong challenger.

47) After each federal census,

A) the office of the Speaker of the House changes hands.
B) the size of Congress increases.
C) the membership of the House is reapportioned
D) the Senate reapportions its membership.
E) all of the above

48) Occasionally, a major political tidal wave rolls across the country and throws large numbers of incumbents of a given party out of office. When did this last occur?

A) 1994
B) 1980
C) 1974
D) 1964
E) 1954

49) Which of the following statements about Congress is FALSE?

A) Congress is a collection of generalists trying to make policy on specialized topics.
B) Members of Congress are surrounded by people who know (or claim to know) more
than they do.
C) Members of Congress are often unsure of what is being voted on when a roll-call vote is
D) Members frequently ask their colleagues how to vote.
E) none of the above

50) Nebraska?s legislature is the only one in the United States that is NOT

A) elected by the voters.
B) unicameral.
C) bicameral.
D) tricameral.
E) under term limits.

51) Bicameralism means that a legislative body is one

A) with two houses, providing checks and balances on policymaking.
B) in which each state has two senators, providing equal representation of the states.
C) in which incumbents have a better chance of being reelected, providing continuity in
D) that must share power with a president, providing more efficient policymaking.
E) in which there are only two political parties.

52) To be sent to the president, a bill must be passed by

A) the House.
B) the Senate.
C) either the House or the Senate.
D) both the House and the Senate.
E) a majority vote of Congress, regardless of which house the votes come from.

53) The House ________ Committee reviews most bills coming from other committees before they go on to the full House, thus performing a traffic cop function.

A) Appropriations
B) Ways and Means
C) Rules
D) Authorization
E) Review

54) Articles of impeachment must be passed by

A) either the House or the Senate.
B) both the House and the Senate.
C) the Senate.
D) the House.
E) the Supreme Court.

55) House seats are up for election every

A) two years.
B) four years.
C) six years.
D) eight years.
E) five years.

56) A Senate seat is up for election every

A) two years.
B) four years.
C) six years.
D) eight years.
E) five years.

57) Which of the following is TRUE about the Senate as compared to the House?

A) more centralized with stronger leadership
B) seniority more important in determining power
C) more influential on the budget
D) more influential in foreign affairs
E) smaller in number, less powerful and less prestigious

58) According to the Constitution, revenue bills must originate in the

A) Internal Revenue Service.
B) Federal Reserve System.
C) House.
D) Senate.
E) Treasury Department.

59) Nominees to the United States Supreme Court must be confirmed by

A) the Senate.
B) the House.
C) either the House or the Senate.
D) both the House and the Senate.
E) the president.

60) According to the Constitution, once impeached, federal officials are then tried in the

A) Supreme Court.
B) House.
C) Senate.
D) Department of Justice.
E) United States District Court for the District of Columbia.

61) The House Rules Committee

A) has its members appointed by the House majority leader.
B) is similar to the Senate Rules Committee.
C) usually retains independence from the House leadership.
D) reviews most bills coming from committee before they go to the full House.
E) all of the above

62) The Constitution gives the House of Representatives the power to

A) initiate all revenue bills.
B) ratify all treaties.
C) confirm presidential nominations.
D) try impeached officials.
E) all of the above

63) One of the key differences between the House and Senate is that the House

A) has weaker leadership.
B) is more influential on foreign affairs.
C) has more policy specialization.
D) is less centralized.
E) is less institutionalized.

64) One of the key differences between the House and Senate is that the Senate

A) is more centralized.
B) is less dependent on seniority for determining power.
C) has a lower turnover rate.
D) has stronger leadership.
E) has more anarchy.

65) The real differences between the House and the Senate lie in their

A) ideology.
B) members? characteristics.
C) organization and centralization of power.
D) role in policy.
E) power relative to each other.

66) The filibuster

A) is unique to the Senate.
B) is unique to the House.
C) is allowed in both the House and the Senate.
D) has been ruled unconstitutional.
E) has been prohibited in both the House and Senate.

67) ________ members present and voting can halt a filibuster by voting for cloture.

A) Sixty
B) Seventy
C) Eighty
D) Fifty-one
E) Seventy-five

68) The filibuster is a technique used in the

A) House to delay legislation until a full House can convene.
B) Senate to prolong debate in order to kill a bill.
C) Senate to bypass committees in voting on controversial issues.
D) House to allow more time to debate controversial policies.
E) House and Senate to prevent a vote on a bill.

69) To cut off debate and end a filibuster is known as

A) franking.
B) coattails.
C) cloture.
D) overriding.
E) hushing.

70) To end a filibuster requires ________ members present and voting to cut off debate.

A) 50
B) 60
C) 75
D) 99
E) 218

71) Which of the following congressional offices is mandated by the Constitution?

A) Speaker of the House
B) House and Senate Majority Leader
C) President of the House
D) President of the United States
E) all of the above

72) Which of the following does the Speaker NOT play a role in?

A) making committee assignments
B) presiding over the House when it is in session
C) recommending which members should be expelled from the House for failure to support the party?s positions on bills
D) assigning most bills to committees
E) appointing the party?s legislative leaders

73) The ________ is next in line after the vice president to succeed a president who resigns, dies in office, or is impeached.

A) Senate majority leader
B) Senate minority leader
C) House majority leader
D) Speaker of the House
E) Chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

74) The minority whip

A) assists the majority leader in party-line votes.
B) becomes the Speaker automatically if the Speaker resigns.
C) represents African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans in each
chamber of Congress.
D) keeps a close head count on key votes, and attempts to keep party members in line.
E) is used to punish members who do not vote with the rest of their party.

75) Which of the following statements about the majority leader of the House of Representatives is FALSE?

A) The majority leader exercises substantial control over which bills get assigned to which committees.
B) The majority leader is the main steppingstone to the job of Speaker of the House.
C) The majority leader is responsible for scheduling bills in the House.
D) The majority leader is responsible for rounding up votes on behalf of the party?s position on legislation.
E) He or she is the principal ally of the Speaker.

76) The ________ has the job of presiding over the Senate, breaking ties when necessary.

A) majority leader
B) majority whip
C) minority leader
D) vice president
E) Speaker

77) The most powerful person in the Senate is the

A) majority leader.
B) vice president of the United States, who serves as president of the Senate.
C) chair of the Rules Committee.
D) Speaker.
E) president of the United States.

78) Most important congressional activity is done

A) on legislators? visits to their home districts.
B) in meetings of standing committees and their subcommittees.
C) on the House floor.
D) on the Senate floor.
E) in the White House.

79) Most of the business of Congress takes place

A) in congressional districts.
B) on the floor of the House and Senate.
C) in committees and subcommittees.
D) during evening social functions.
E) in the Rules committees.

80) A ________ committee is one appointed for a limited, specific purpose, such as that set up to investigate the Watergate scandal.

A) standing
B) select
C) conference
D) joint
E) special

81) Appropriations, Judiciary, and Armed Forces are all examples of ________ committees.

A) standing
B) select
C) conference
D) joint
E) rule

82) When the House and the Senate pass different versions of the same bill

A) the House bill is changed to conform with the Senate bill.
B) the Senate bill is changed to conform with the House bill.
C) a conference committee is appointed to resolve differences.
D) a joint committee is appointed to resolve differences.
E) the president may select which bill to enact into law.

83) Legislative ________ is the process of monitoring the bureaucracy and its administration of policy.

A) franking
B) stonewalling
C) overview
D) oversight
E) supremacy

84) When members of Congress hold a hearing to question a cabinet member on how a law is being carried out, they are engaging in

A) agenda-setting.
B) filibustering.
C) legislative oversight.
D) casework.
E) congressional administration.

85) Which of the following statements about congressional committees is FALSE?

A) Unless a committee gives a bill a favorable report it almost never can be considered by
the full House or Senate.
B) The most important output of the committee is the marked up bill.
C) Members of the committee usually serve as floor managers of the bill.
D) Members of the committee act as cue-givers to whom other members turn for advice.
E) none of the above

86) The seniority system gave a decisive edge to House members from ________ districts.

A) Republican
B) suburban
C) older
D) safe
E) competitive

87) House and Senate committees

A) all have an equal number of Republicans and Democrats.
B) all have a majority of members from the majority party in that chamber.
C) must have their membership approved by the president.
D) are non-partisan, and thus some committees are nearly all Democrats and others nearly
all Republicans.
E) are populated by the hired staff members of Congress, freeing the elected members for more important work.

88) Members of Congress seek committees that will help them achieve each of the following goals EXCEPT

A) reelection.
B) influence in Congress.
C) a salary increase.
D) opportunity to make policy in areas they think are important.
E) opportunity to make policy in areas important to their constituents.

89) Traditionally, Congressional committee chairpersons have been chosen through

A) the seniority system.
B) party rank.
C) popularity with majority leaders.
D) a majority vote by committee members.
E) the merit system.

90) Members of Congress who informally band together in groups to promote and protect mutual interests (e.g., mushroom growers) form what are called

A) subcommittees.
B) committees.
C) caucuses.
D) junkets.
E) interest groups.

91) Caucuses in Congress

A) press committees to hold hearings.
B) push their preferred legislation.
C) mobilize votes for favored legislation.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above

92) Congressional reforms of the 1970s

A) professionalized the operation of Congress and made it much more efficient.
B) decentralized power and democratized Congress.
C) were aimed at rooting out scandal and corruption.
D) ended the two-party monopoly of Congress and brought new parties into Congress.
E) all of the above

93) Republican congressional reforms in the 1990s included all of the following EXCEPT

A) committee chairs were allowed to choose the chairs of subcommittees on their
B) both committee and subcommittee chairs were limited to three consecutive two-year
terms as chair.
C) some subcommittees were eliminated.
D) committee chairs were given complete control over the timing of bills under consideration.
E) none of the above

94) Which of the following is responsible for responding to congressional requests for information and providing non-partisan studies?

A) Congressional Research Service
B) Congressional Budget Office
C) General Accounting Office
D) Ways and Means Committee
E) Office of the Majority Leader

95) Committee staff is responsible for all of the following EXCEPT

A) providing services to constituents.
B) organizing hearings.
C) writing legislation.
D) monitoring the executive branch.
E) coordinating with congressional offices.

96) Which of the following offices is responsible for making economic projections about the performance of the economy, the costs of proposed policies, and the economic effects of taxing and spending alternatives?

A) Congressional Research Service
B) Congressional Budget Office
C) General Accounting Office
D) Ways and Means Committee
E) Federal Reserve

97) Only ________ can formally submit a bill for congressional consideration.

A) members of the House
B) senators
C) members of the House or senators
D) the president
E) the Speaker of the House

98) Most bills formally submitted for consideration in Congress

A) are passed and signed into law.
B) are passed, but vetoed by the president.
C) are defeated in close final votes on the floors of one chamber.
D) are quietly killed off early in the process.
E) pass one house, but are killed in the other house.

99) Basically, Congress is a(n) ________ decision-making body.

A) reactive and cumbersome
B) active and smooth
C) unified and consistent
D) radical and hasty
E) retroactive

100) The president?s most common method of attempting to influence Congress is to

A) call up wavering members.
B) offer to campaign for members.
C) hold regular meetings with the party?s leaders in Congress.
D) invite members of Congress to the White House.
E) use the veto power.

101) Presidential leadership of Congress in promoting the chief executive?s programs is

A) dominant, with a heavy hand usually convincing wavering members.
B) a smooth, generally successful enterprise.
C) at the margins, as a facilitator.
D) nonexistent.
E) proactive, substantive, and adversarial.

102) The parties in Congress are most cohesive

A) on foreign policy issues.
B) when electing their official leaders.
C) on economic policy.
D) military matters.
E) during floor votes.

103) The English politician and philosopher Edmund Burke favored the concept of legislators as ________, using their best judgment to make policy in the interests of the people.

A) constituent robots
B) trustees
C) instructed delegates
D) politicos
E) judges

104) Some prefer the concept of legislators as ________, mirroring the preferences of their constituents.

A) trustees
B) politicos
C) instructed delegates
D) uninstructed delegates
E) pollsters

105) The best way constituents can influence congressional voting on legislation is to

A) sign petitions.
B) write letters or send telegrams.
C) fax or call in their opinions.
D) elect a representative or senator who agrees with their views.
E) demonstrate on the steps of the capitol.

106) On a typical issue, the primary determinant of a congressional member?s vote is

A) constituent preferences as indicated by extensive polling.
B) the position of the president.
C) personal ideology.
D) the toss of a coin.
E) the position of their party leaders.

107) Legislators who use their best judgment to make policy in the interests of the people are called

A) trustees.
B) instructed delegates.
C) politicos.
D) attentive leaders.
E) opinion leaders.

108) Most members of Congress would be considered

A) trustees.
B) instructed delegates.
C) politicos.
D) ambassadors.
E) attentive leaders.

109) Constituencies influence policy mostly by

A) the initial choice of the representative.
B) influencing congressional leaders.
C) empowering the president in his negotiations with Congress.
D) buying votes through election contributions.
E) lobbying Senators.

110) Which of the following statements about constituency influence is FALSE?

A) It is difficult even for well-intentioned legislators to know what people want.
B) Legislators whose votes on routine issues are out of step with their constituents are rarely reelected.
C) On some controversial issues, legislators ignore constituent opinion at great peril.
D) On obscure issues legislators can safely ignore constituency opinion.
E) Letters received by legislators are more likely to convey extremist rather than moderate

111) In the relationship between lobbyists and members of Congress,

A) members of Congress can ignore and embarrass lobbyists.
B) lobbyists hold the greater power.
C) members of Congress depend on lobbyists for reelection.
D) lobbyists pay members of Congress to pass or defeat bills.
E) lobbyists spend most of their efforts on converting opponents to their cause.

112) If Congress has increased the scope of government it is because

A) members typically suffer from Potomac fever.
B) members are by-spending liberals.
C) that is what constituencies want.
D) that is what Congressional staffers want.
E) it is responding to the policy expertise provided by the bureaucracy.


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