United States and Canada Essay
Review of relevant literature, reports and records A combination of these techniques can be used as a means of need assessment following the steps mentioned below Step I analyzing current situation Waste management in many developing countries, still mainly consists of collecting waste and dumping it either through land fills or simply by burning, ignoring all environmental hazards it creates.
In developing countries specifically India disposing off waste material by burning and land fills can be easily observed in many parts of the country so the best approach to needs assessment process would be direct observation. As per Columbia University (2005), UNDP projections of urban waste per day in India show that in 2005 was 114,576 tons and in 2005 only it was estimated to be increasing by 1. 3 percent annually from approximately 48 million tons annually.
However, only 60-70 percent of the waste is collected for disposal with one of the main source of waste collection in India being rag pickers who can be seen collecting and sorting solid waste (hazardous and otherwise) in the dead of night. As discussed above the main disposal methods are land fill and waste burning and according to Columbia University (2005) approximately94 percent goes
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With these figures it is clearly evident that negligible amount of waste is recycled or reused. Although ideally only very minimum, if possible, only hazardous waste should go to land fills that too only when it is unavoidable. Step II Cost benefit analysis Though many foreign companies are highly interested to cater the large market i. e. to supply specialized waste collection equipment to the large market in India the sheer cost of these equipments is a discouraging factor for the government.
Many analysts, in various reports consider the cost worth it because the idea of cleaner urban areas of the country is certainly very pleasant and with the amount of garbage produced in India this is inevitably the only solution. In this context the social benefits available will greatly surpass the cost needed to be incurred (project monitor, n. d. ). Step III law As per Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules 2000 every municipality is required to take care of a framework for collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of solid waste.
The rules emphasize on the need to use appropriate technology to process waste so as to make use of the waste and to reduce the burden on landfills. Rules recommend usage of land only when it can neither be recycled nor it is possible to process it biologically. Rules also state that land fill sites should use technology to safeguard adjacent properties and to control odor (Foundation for Greentech Environmental Systems, n. d. ). Also the land fill site should be adjacent to processing area or the processing are should be adjacent to the site.
Although the rules gives comprehensive guideline still the consultation with the concerned staff may reveal the problems due to which these rules are not implemented properly despite of giving clear framework some of which may include lack of funds and proper landfill sites available to the local bodies and lack of public awareness and participation. Interviews with the public regarding the adequacy of manpower to the municipality and those who are working are negligent or reluctant in the performance of their work as per standards.
Step IV Possible solutions and opportunities The most evident solution which can bring about drastic changes is possibly educating the community. The best method to devise a strategy to carry this out is perhaps by direct discussion with public in general and to study media reports and reports by independent firms to have an idea about the general psychology of the local population so that campaign designed to create awareness is successful in attaining its objectives.
The campaign will enable people to understand the importance of waste management so that they play the step by collecting the waste at the particular place making it easier for the authorities to collect. As discussed earlier the market in India is huge and foreign firms are more than willing to provide equipments for waste management. Consultations with the people in a position to enable their usage will help and discussions with the local population will help to make the usage easier.
These will fulfill the needs of the community of better collection processing or disposal of the waste. The informal sector presently plays an important role in the waste management though the exact figures are unknown. They support waste management by recycling paper, plastic and metal. If informal sector is helped so that it is more organized than it will reduce the burden on the government. Discussing the problems of the people involved in this will also enable to make it organized and efficient. References Columbia University (2005).
Capacity-to-Act in India’s Solid Waste Management and Waste-to-Energy Industries. Retrieved July 17, 2010 from http://www. seas. columbia. edu/earth/wtert/sofos/Bhada_Capacity_to_Act_in_India. pdf Foundation for Greentech Environmental Systems (n. d. ) MSW (Management and handling) rules, 2000 -a critique. Retrieved July 17, 2010 from www. green-ensys. org/site/publications/MSW_Rules_%2520A_critique. pdf Project monitor, (n. d. ). Solid waste disposal goes hi-tech. Retrieved July 17, 2010 from http://www. projectsmonitor. com/detailnews. asp? newsid=7036