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Unmanned Vehicles Systems

During the re-planning occasion what first needs to be in consideration is all about the efficiency of the unmanned vehicle system and which can only measured through the practical trial operations and the critique analysis of the merits and demerits of using the unmanned vehicle systems.

Through the study of the unmanned vehicle system the significant limitations found can be: It needs the high skilled personnel in order to operate, It limits the amount of automation as in it can only take commands up to a certain limit beyond which it can not respond to any, it becomes difficult for the operator in the control room if at a specific time is operating more than two unmanned vehicle and then multiple alerts occur both requiring the attention and timeliness of the operator, It can only operate a limited alternative actions as it is only directed to the targets and should the target deviate in the aspect of position and angularity the unmanned vehicle system will find it very difficult to hit, the unmanned vehicle can hardly design the new route to use in any case the first route used is blocked by any barrier and if any part of the unmanned vehicle wears out all reduces the efficiency it is difficult for the person from the control room to fix the problem in order to maintain the standard route designed in addition the operator has to be glued in the loop of all the activities of all the vehicles.

The merits of the unmanned vehicle is that it has an efficient communication systems both automated, visual and auditory, should any accident occur there is no loss of human life since the operator is not within the machine but is in the control room, the vehicle has got high level/ percentage of accuracy in operation hence effective in hitting the targets, the machine can filter the information analyze against the time component and it is remote operated hence high level of efficiency in taking commands from the operator. Also the added advantage is that a single individual can operate many of the remote operated vehicles. Re-planning needs first the evaluations of the detailed information collected during the first trip and the challenges encountered that might be the barrier from the remote operated vehicle hitting the target has to be critically analyzed and the comprehensions accurately drawn.

There must be a study to be conducted of the level of automation including the manual control management by consent, management by exception, and the designed method to internationally injecting the errors into decision aiding capabilities of the simulation. Some of the task that needs to be fixed and improved on the evasion or status of the remote operated vehicles includes; the participant to be well informed of the decision- aid infidelity prior to the data collected, well informed about the independent variables and dependent variables such as the mission efficiency, percentage of the correct detection of incorrect decisions at the analysis of the data which was collected for the decision aid, work load and the situation awareness ratings, the trust in the automation of the ratings and the performance enjoyments over the three dimension perspectives view on the mission scene.

Results and the findings from the missions are: In the USA mission project under the four phases: mission familiarity, target search/ location, target surveillance and report and then back to the base; felt to have inter-phases of the emergencies in between the major four phases in any case the enemies detect the interruption from the USA side of accomplishing the missions, definitely there must be a reaction. In subtasks under phase one should the message displayed on the message box in 15 second isn’t detected by the auditory condition coordinated with the flight the next phase can’t be obtained, in the search /location of command target, should the different question not appear after responding to the first question? Should the refreshing button not function? And what will happen if the enemies thus efficiently deactivate the SAR sensor and EO/OR sensor?

In the mission familiarity on searching the targets and being familiar with them, the problem of encountering and distinguishing the one to be avoided during the actual maneuvering troops on the loops of the mission is experienced. In the Iran-Iraq border mission; including the above findings/ results due to similarity of the divided phases, the first point is that there is no friendly back up forces as to the mission of the USA thus tougher the task to hit the target, should there be more hostile response despite the friendly relation figuring out as the outrange out the enemy country of Iran definitely the exist the double response from Iran and Iraq towards any detection under confusion of identity of which the mission is under operated from.

And in the third scenario of China the results and findings include all the above enlisted that shows correlation amongst the three scenes, have very strong air network detection should the versatility of Tigerhawk fail the whole mission fails due to the fact of detection. Analysis of the findings; the emergency inter-phase in between the four phase should be put into consideration and purposely to find the alternative route of the attack should the designated rout fail to show up or get detected. The emergence inter-phase though must be timely sensitive it can give room for the data analysis and aid decision drawn under emergency quarter. Secondly, the first display ought to be recorded, critically and quickly analyzed and conclusions drawn for the aid decision to be made prior to the next alternative target phase attack.

Thirdly, to minimize the over reliance of the first question to the next, determining a phase to another, the map should be drawn together with the alternative route for the whole mission though with simple complexity with the next join-ups leading from the previous phase to the next to avoid confusion, being stack in one phase concentrating on the revelations and repetitions/ the refresh buttons instead of faring on to the next phase should the obstacles emerge. In the case where the SAR and EO/OR sensors being deactivated by the enemies denying the access of the information required, the emergence inter-phase to analyze the newly detected threats and the alternative option intervenes to design the new route to detect the unallocated tasks. Recording of auditory alone without visual images for analysis can’t surface the re-planning mission but the circulations and a fresh advanced survey ought to be carried effectively with the revisions of the first plan.

For the incident of the strong air network detection, and should the Trigerhawk seem to be detected a simpler device ought to exist in the emergence quarter to entice and entertain the enemy air network detectors on space prevailing to easy access of the Trigerhawk towards the targeted missions. Finally marking the targets in order to reduce the casualties can solve the problem of not knowing which to attack and which to avoid during the actual mission. Design recommendations for the re-planning the missions by the use of the General Event Flow Diagram, in any situation there must be the existence of the yes and no options to create the room for always existence of plan B towards the mission target this excludes the emergence inter-phases if inclusive in the mission operation.

The essence of the emergence inter-phase can include: revising the task missions if the task missions are not accomplished, accomplishing the monitoring while in transit loops, drawing conclusions for the high prioritized tasks, Analyzing the newly detected threats and drawing the new route for the unallocated targeted tasks, determines whether there is the need of the re-plan mission while on operation, determines and analyzes the status of the machine and concludes for the go ahead in taking any action, analyzing the possible target that have been detected, second critique review of the videos and images captured so far for the mission, provides room for answering question such as whether the videos and images collected and critically analyzed there before contain the real target of the mission in them, view the target for verification before authorizing the weapons for the release, and a verification of the target for the destruction due to the released weapons, as for instance the weapons can be release and through verification of all the phases being sure there is destruction of the target and there comes that the target is not destroyed forcing for the re-plan of the mission and if the mission is destroyed the emergence inter-phase assures that the target is completely destroyed before returning to the base. On the description of the improved design for the re-plan for the mission, there came up the merits and the demerits of the re-plan on the mission. The demerits or the limitations of the re-plan are: time consuming, the rivals might be aware of the attack and toughly respond or react back, it is more risky and more expensive comparing to the already done task, the new formulated tasks and the previous tasks taken can lead to compounded tasks acquired, need to be processed and require disseminations can be so overwhelming for the operator to multitask.

The advantages that can be realized during the re-plan are: There is no need of conducting a reconnaissance phase since there is familiarity and even surveillance phase becomes cheap giving a chance to combat the engaging targets improving the performance and the workload as compared to the first attempt, another advantage is that there is situation awareness in regard to the target of the mission, there is specialization towards the goal-oriented tasks in making quick decisions during the mission process, during the re-plan there is improved experience on navigation and the tact of avoiding the obstacles and collisions detriment and exclude off other non-task components.

For the System operation improvement for re-planning of the mission some of the tasks to be prioritized include: The current status of the robot or unmanned vehicles trying to analyze whether there have been the system failure previously and whether should the robot done way from carrying out the task during the re-planned mission. On analyzing the status of the robot, the key factors considered are such as the robot projection under the influence of the voltage level, fuel level, quality of communication, the status of the cameras to collect the information, body configuration and orientation of the robot, orientation of tools within the robot, the efficiency status of the sensors, speed of the robot, effects of the terrain features, time of recovery and the location of the targets.

For the re-planned mission to be improved significantly the role of the human being has to be critically viewed of. The human conceptualization towards the mission and the execution of his technology centered to the goals and the constraints links between the human being and the automation leads to success. In human role in re-planning a goal driven mission is to specify the goals and the constraints for the mission for the system to generate and execute the actions as specified by the human being, secondly the human being has to review, approve, execute and override the automation systems planned actions in order to achieve the goal of the mission.

In the discussion and conclusion above all the after mentioned ideas in regard to re-planning the mission, then the self conflict can erupt between the human and the robot in giving and taking commands and receiving plus responding to the commands, and a conflict can rise between differences of the errors and mismatch of the specified goal processing, on the process of monitoring the set explicit goals such as identifying the target and detecting the unallocated threats and responding appropriately towards them against the implicit set goals such as not alerting the enemy your approach, conflict due to complex automation systems minimization of the fuel consumption and while achieving that a fuel tank can burst and leak. To address such erupted conflict probably in the display design, the operator has to amplify the mismatches between the human and the robot/unmanned vehicles giving room to emphasize the explicit goals/ the mission goals other than the implicit goals, (for instance it will be late for the enemy to prepare and respond back than the target stricken so the operator ought not to concentrate on keenly approach at sometime and some level as compared to the retreat).

Mismatches can also be reduced by the displays (displaying information relevant to explicit, implicit and pre-programmed goals) that guide the human operators’ attention to put first the most relevant decisions to overcome the robot revolution against the planned process. In conclusion the re-planning to be effective and meet the targets to satisfaction, aspects that was put into consideration are the merits and demerits of using the unmanned vehicle systems, critical evaluation of the information gathered from the area of target, some of the tasks to be improved during the re-planned mission, what to prioritize in the mission when using the general event flow diagrams, how to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the mission, the analysis of the problems likely to be encountered and there effective solutions and alternatives and the all after mentioned if keenly adhered to there must be achievements.

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