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US History – Unit 4

Chisholm Trail
The cattle-drive trail from San Antonio, Texas to Abilene, Kansas. This helped cattlemen get across the land on a good route.
Transcontinentail Railroad
A railroad that spans the continent. It could get someone across the US in 6 days.
Dawes Act
An 1887 federal law distributing land to individual Indians rather than to tribes thereby encouraging Indians to become assimilated. This gave Indians personal land.
Homestead Act
A 1862 federal law that granted tracts of land called homesteads to western settlers who agreed to work the land and live on it for 5 years. This Act gave people free land.
Exodusters
African Americans who migrated from the South to the Great Plains following the civil war. They were willing to fight and wanted to fight.
Populist Party
A political party founded in 1892 calling for policies to help working people such as government ownership of railroads and ??? of silver. They wanted help building the railroads.
How did the growth of railroads affect the US economy and geography?
It brought more immigrants into the US to work on the railroad. And, while building the railroad, they cut into the land affecting the geography.
How did the opening of the West, including the growth of mining and the building of railroads, affect immigrants?
They moved West because they needed to help build the railroads.
Describe the consequences of westward expansion for American Indians and their culture.
It affected them because it impacted their hunting land and their camps.
Analyze the role that government policies played in the settlement of the West.
They played a huge role in the expansion. They wanted to expand the country.
Identify the factors that gave rise to populism. What role did the Grangers play in addressing farmers’ concerns?
A huge factor in populism is the railroad. They needed to bring immigrants to die building the railroad.
Evaluate the effects of the Populist Party on American society. To what extent was the Populist Party successful in resolving problems of farmers? How did the party affect Americans’ view of government?
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Bessemer Process
A method of steelmaking invented in 1855 that enabled steel to be made more cheaply and quickly. This made train tracks easier to make.
Horizontal Integration
A corporate expansion strategy that involves joining together as many firms from the same industry as possible. This made the process bigger to make more of one thing.
Vertical Integration
A corporate expansion strategy that involves controlling each step in the production and distribution of a product from acquiring raw materials to manufacturing, packaging and shipping. This helped to make more items faster.
Laissez-faire
The idea that the free market through supply and demand by Allied powers at the close of WWI to promote international peace and security. This created peace between countries.
Social Darwinism
An idea based on Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution that the best run businesses led by the most capable people will survive and prosper. This theory helped people run businesses better.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
An 1840 federal law that outlawed trusts, monopolies, and other forms of business that restricted trade. It encouraged trade though supply and demand.
Telegraph
This invention helped get the word out faster across the country.
Telephone
People were able to talk to one another on the phone.
Electricity
People were able to work day and night
In what ways did the physical geography of the US help spur its economic development?
The economic development was increased by moving West getting new supplies.
Discuss how businesses changed to supply expanding markets. What were some of the effects of these changes?
They changed to get their products out faster and farther away.
Why did some powerful capitalists form monopolies and trusts?
They formed monopolies and trusts so they could control prices.
What effect did monopolies and trusts have on the way businesses operated? What were the drawbacks of the way big business operated?
???
Evaluate the extent to which the government followed it’s laissez-faire policy.
If the government were to shut down, the market would still run by itself.
What action was taken to limit the power of big business and how effective was this effort?
The government created Acts (like the Sherman Anti-Trust Act) to make sure no one got too much power and it was shared equally.
Should Industrialists of this era be remembered as Robber Barons or Captains of Industry? Why?
Captains of Industry because they worked and found the items and found ways to make more of it.
Working Class
People who work for wages in factories, mills, and other businesses usually performing manual labor. People worked hard and didn’t mess around.
Child Labor
The practice of using children as manual laborers. Children can do things that adults can’t do.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
A national labor organization founded in 1886 that consisted mainly of skilled workers and focused on higher wages and shorter work days. They gave people higher paying jobs and new jobs.
Haymarket Affair
Violent clash in 1886 between union supporters and Chicago police that divided and weakened the labor movement. This really divided the labor workers.
Homestead Strike
An 1892 Carnegie Steel plant workers’ strike that was broken by the state militia and resulted in the union being shut out of the plant for four decades. It showed people will rebel and owners will lose money.
Pullman Strike
An 1894 railroad workers’ strike that was broken up by federal troops weakening the labor movement. It really affected the labor movement.
Summarize the effects of industrialization on the living and working conditions of the working class.
They worked long hours at hard jobs for little pay.
What factors led to the formation of early labor unions?
Workers earned little money, worked many hours, and they didn’t have good working conditions.
Historically, labor unions have focused on which 3 ‘bread and butter’ objectives?
Higher wages, shorter hours and better working conditions.
Identify tactics that business owners and management used to undermine unions.
Strikes broke out and the owners and workers didn’t get along.
Discuss the impact that the major strikes of the late 1800’s had on unions.
They had huge impacts because the people came together and didn’t give in.
Describe the attitude and the role of the federal government in its interaction with labor unions.
The government was upset because they had to send armies to break up the strikes and riots.
Summarize the gains made by labor unions in the late 1800’s.
Wages improved and so did working conditions.
Push factors Pull factors
Push factors are problems that cause people to immigrate to another place. Pull factors are attractions that draw immigrants to other places. This puts people in other places.
America letters
Letters from immigrants in the US to firends and family in the old country which spurred further immigration. This spread immigration to other parts of the world.
Ellis Island Immigration Station
The port of entry for most European immigrants arriving in NY between 1892 and 1954. This port checked in immigrants coming to the US.
Nativism
The policy of favoring the interest of native-born Americans over those of immigrants.
Americanization
The assimilation of immigrants into American society, a goal of some patriotic groups who feared that increased immigration threatened American society and values. This gave immigrants rights.
Chinese Exclusion Act
An 1882 law prohibiting the immigration of Chinese laborers for 10 years and preventing Chinese already in the country from becoming citizens; the first US immigration restriction based solely on nationality or race. This act stopped immigration from China and stopped the growth of the Chinese.
Angel Island Immigration Station
The port of entry for most Asian immigrants arriving in San Francisco between 1910 adn 1940.
Summarize the push and pull factors that spurred immigration to the US in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s.
It helped people move to new and better lands.
Describe the living conditions and settlement patterns of immigrants who moved into cities.
Immigrants settled in the same areas. Living conditions weren’t always good – they were dirty and dark.
How and why did those promoting Americanization seek to assimilate new immigrants into American culture?
There were booming jobs. New lifes and friends were saying it was nice.
Trace navitism since before the Civil War. How did nativists affect public and government actions in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s?
Immigration brought more people into the US. They worked for low paying jobs and did all the dirty jobs.
Explain how immigrants from Europe, Asia and neighboring countries of Mexico and Canada contributed to American society.
It made the society bigger and the US needed new and more land. They made it that white people could own businesses.
Discuss the expanding religious pluralism that resulted from immigration in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. What was the nativist response to this pluralism?
The religions were way different and lots of different cultures in one community or town

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