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US History

where was the first successful oil well drilled?
Western Pennsylvania
How did the US labor pool differ from Europe?
The labor pool enlarged more than Europe’s when immigrants became eager to find employment (Americans kept trying to climb the financial level).
What governemtn policies aided the US rapid industrialization?
Liberal immigration laws ensured a steady supply of cheap labor, and high protective tariffs encouraged American industries and raised manufacturer’s profits by keeping out of foreign goods.
Who was C. Latham Sholes?
An inventor and a Wisconsin printer whose idea for a typewrite in 1868 revolutionized business communications.
What impact did the electric light have on industrial production?
made industrial production possible for 24 hrs. a day
Why was the intorduction of standard sizes important to the clothing industry?
they were able to be used in the manufacturer of ready-made clothes
What are economic of scale?
allowed large factories to mass-produce shoes more cheaply and efficiently than smaller companies
What technological innovations added to the efficiency of the railroads?
the Bessemer process allowed companies to replace iron rail with steel (able to carry heavier loads), and the Westinghouse air brake allowing the trains to stop simultaneously
What major structural change did the railroad industry need to undergo before it could become a truly national network?
they needed to consolidate smaller lines around the entire country (standard gage- width)
Who was Cornelius Vanderbilt?
one of the most successful railroad consolidators who build the New York Central System and made more great improvements to the railroad
Why could big manufacturing companies run more efficiently than small ones?
they were able to improve equipment, shift cars from one section of the country to another according to seasonal needs, and to speed long-distance transportation (lower cost)
What invention gave rise to a nationwide brand of meats?
refrigerated railroad car
How could large companies deal with shippers? With small local competitors?
big companies could sell their products in an area at a loss until local competitors were forced to shut down or sell out; and they could demand volume discounts from shippers
Why were Horatio Alger’s novels so popular with Americans?
they gave Americans the faith to become successful since his stories were based on young men who became successful in business because of hard work and lucky breaks (told the American Dream)
What was the purpose of a holding company?
to own stock in other corporations; and through them wealthy capitalists could own controlling interests in many business (financial)
What is a trust?
a combination of companies to gain control of an industry and reduce competition
Describe horizontal integration.
sometimes consolidated companies in which several firms engaged in the same kind of business were joined together; and if it became large enough it could achieve a monopoly of that industry (buying out competition)
Describe vertical integration.
consolidated companies which joined businesses engaged in different but related activities
Who founded Standard Oil?
John D. Rockefeller
Why did Rockefeller use the railroads to gain an advantage over his competiotrs?
he believed drilling for oil was always a gamble and thought his way was a safer investment
Where did Standard Oil begin?
Cleveland, Ohio
How did Rockefeller use the railroads to gain an advantage over his competitors?
he sold his oil- offering to give certain companies all its shipping business if they would secretly agree (25%-50% less charge than the other competitors and they also told him the places of all the competitors’ shipments)- bribes
How did Rockefeller expand his oil empire after gobbling up his refining competitors?
combined 40 companies under a single management in 1882
Who exposed Rockefeller’s business practices to the American public?
Ida Tarbell, (much-racker journalist) revealed it in a series of articles in McClure’s Magazine
How did Carnegie build his steel empire?
he came up with the Bessemer process and the open hearth process (two ways to make steel)- these processes enabled him to make steel so cheaply that it could be used for many purposes which allowed him to build his steel empire (set low prices but still made profits): vertical integrated
What philosophy proclaimed that people became millionaires by survival of the fittest?
social darwinism
How did Carnegie believe the wealthy were obligated to society?
he believed that those who were fortunate enough to make a profit from society should do something good in return for their prosperity
entrepreneur
person who organizes, manages, and assumes the risks of a business or enterprise
economies of scale
ability of large business to operate more cheaply and efficiently than smaller ones, resulting in lower per-unity costs for the products of large companies
corporation
form of business consisting of a group of people authorized by law to act as a single person and having an indentity that survives its incorporators
holding company
one that gains control of other companies by buying their stock
trust
combination of companies to gain control of an industry and reduce competition
horizontal integration
joining together of businesses that are engaged in similar businesses activities or processes
vertical integration
joining together of businesses that are involved in a different but related activities or processes
rebate
discount in the form of a refund or part of a payment for a product or service
social darwinism
sociological theory that states only the fittest survive social competition and experience social advancement
philanthropy
actions to promote human welfare and benefit society
thomas edison
founder of menlo park labratory that developed many inventions like the lighbulb
c. latham sholes
wisconsin printer whose idea for a typewriter revolutionized business communications
horatio alger
novelist who wrote “rags to riches” stories
horizontal integration
combination of firms in the same business
social darwinism
philosophy used by giant industrialists to justify their actions
Andrew Carnegie
believed “Gospel of Wealth,” that rich people must see surplus money to benefit society
john d. rockefeller
entrepreneur who dominated oil industry
corporation
company formed by a group of investors who each receive a share of ownership in a proportion to the amount they invest
holding company
business enterprise that manufactured no products, existing only to own stock in other corporations
cornelius vanderbilt
railroad tycoon known as “the Commodore”
entrepreneur
business organizer
ida tarbell
investigative journalist who revealed ruthless tactics in oil industry
After adjusting for inflation, how much did the wage of the average industrial worker rise between 1870 and 1900?
more than 10% between 1870 and 1900
Describe some working conditions that made industrial life unsafe for workers.
workers inhaling coal dust, saw dust, stone dust, cotton dust, or toxic fumes; heavy machines caused high injury rates
To whom did workers turn for protection from layoffs?
labor unions
How did employers battle labor unions?
involved themselves in union activity, and they attributed to the lockouts- strikes (black list, fired workers, lockouts)
Who usually won strikes and lockouts? Why?
The employers because unions didnt have enough money to support their memebers through the long period of unemployment cause by a strike
How did the Carnegie Steel Company hope to keep control of the Homestead lockout?
by hiring a private army of 300 Pinkerton detectives armed with repeating rifles
What changes did railroads make in the 1870s that triggered the railroad strike of 1877?
the workers’ pay was cut more than 35%, workday hours were lengthened, and they discontinued the “free ride” policy which triggered the railroad strike
What weapon did Terrence V. Powderly believe was the best to fight employers for better working conditions?
a single, powerful union
List some of the principles of the Knights of Labor.
supporting equal pay for women, temperance, abolition of child labor, and above all, establishment of cooperatively owned industrial plants
Why did so many workers join the Knights of Labor?
they were tired of their terrible working conditions; and the membership grew rapidly especially after the knights won the dispute against Jay’s Railway
How did the Haymarket Square riot tarnish the reputation of the Knights of Labor?
the knights became identified with radicals and violence even though they were not charged for the crime, and no one else then wanted to be a part of their group
How did the American Federation of Labor differ from the Knights of Labor?
the AFL only accepted skilled workers, and the workers were organized into separate unions
Who was the AFL president?
Samuel Gompers
Why did the Pullman Strike start?
because the owner let off 2/3 of his employees and also cut the wages of the rest (and did not do anything to help satisfy his employee’s complaints)
What happened to union leader, Eugene Debs during the Pullman strike?
he was imprisoned because he refused to obey the injunction
What event in the mid-1800s led to a wave of Irish immigration?
the potato famine
In what region of the US did many German immigrants settle?
midwest because they were areas rapidly growing and had job opportunities
How did the national make-up of immigrants during the 1880s differ from earlier waves of immigrants?
newer immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe while older ones came from the north and west
For what reasons did many Americans distrust and resent immigrants in the late 1800s?
they resented those mostly toward any of new racial and ethnic groups; also differences in custom, dress, and language led to the resentment
How did Senator Lodge propose to stem the tide of immigration?
he argued for a bill that would exclude all prospective immigrants who could not read or write at least 25 words of the US constitution in some language
What was the American Protective Association?
it protested the large number of Catholic immigrants
In what ways did laws discriminate against immigrants?
they prohibited them from holding certain kinds of jobs and denied them other rights such as admission into some universities (some even faced physical attacks)
What factors governed the location and growth of cities?
industrialization, cities were usually built around some important resource- the cities grew because it increased the chance of jobs and there were more activities to participate in (transporation)
Describe the houseing problem many urban people faced.
people who moved there before houses could be built so they were forced to live in a crowded tenement (poorly constructed with no windows and usually airless)- and this was when the city slums started to develop (lacking property sanitations, smelled bad, and diseases spread)
Explain how cities adjusted to meet the special needds of growing populations.
created awueducts for water miles outside the city; they came up with more ideas for transportation starting with the horse car, and they also created more tall vertical buildings when they needed extra space (leading to the invention of the elevator)
What was Jacob Rii’s role in improving urban conditions?
he wrote a book that described the lives of those living in the slums to call attention to the people in America; which helped reduce the slum’s worst conditions and also added improvements for the city dwellers
How did Jane addams work to imporve urban conditions?
she established other activities in the Hull House as well as hot lunches for workers in order to improve urban conditions- she also worked a lot with young people who were happy to fight for their suffering
How did architects work to change the face of cities?
they beautified parks, created new buildings with a classical style, designed buildings according to their main purpose, and also new ideas of buildings were created like skyscrapers
What attracted people to downtown areas?
the many different department stores created downtown to shop
real wages
income adjusted to compensate for reduced earning power due to inflation
company town
village built and run by a company where workers are required to live
scrip
money that can be redeemed only at a company store
business cycle
sequence of economic activity, usually consisting of recession, recovery, growth, and decline
blacklist
record kept by companies of employees or former employees who are disapporved of or are to be punished or boycotted
lockout
closed factory or place of employment caused by a strike; withholding of employment by an employer
scab
nonunion replacement workers during a strike or union members who refuse to strike and continue working
collective bargaining
negotiation between organized workers and management to reach an agreement on wages, hours, and working conditions
arbitration
hearing and resolution of a disagreement between two parties through an impartial third party
industrial union
union that represents every worker in a single industry regardless of his or her job
injunction
court order requiring an individual or company to do something or to prohibit a given action; used frequently to stop strikes
pogrom
organizecd massacres of unarmed people, especially Jews
anarchism
one who opposes all forms of government
merchandising
buying and selling of goods in a business for a profit
Terrence Powderly
leader of the knights of labor
scabs
workers brought in to replace fired union members
blacklists
records kept by employers of “troublemakers”
jane addams
found of hull house in chicago
jacob riis
author of how the other half lives and crusader for improvement of slum conditions
irish/germans
“old immigration”
Eugene V. Debs
organizer of American Railway Union
Pullman, Illinois
site of strike and riot in 1894, which was supported by the American Railway Union
lockouts
shutting down factories in retaliation against unionization
italians/polish
“new immigration”
scrip
company money paid to employees redeemable only in company stores
samuel gompers
president of American Federation of Labor for 37 years
Haymarket Square
site in 1886 riot, which began as a protest agains McCormick Harvester Company firing truckers
What phenonmenon helped cause the rise of corruption in local government?
The Gilded Age (post-civil war period) caused the rise of corruption in local government: alliance between big businesses and applying it to political means
How did political machines maintain power?
controlling votes (providing voters with housing, groceries, etc.), controlling the courts, and controlling the police as well
Where di the Tammany Hall machine operate?
New York City
Who ran Tammany Hall?
William M. Tweed
How did kickbacks work?
an arrangement whereby contractors would pad, or increase, the amount of their bills for city work and pay a percentage of that amount to politicians in the ring
When and where was Tweed’s corruption exposed?
in 1871 in the New York Times
Who was Thomas Nast?
a brillian politcial cartoonist who ridiculed Tweed in his cartoons for Harper’s Weekly( the same time the New York Times article was published)
What administration saw federal corruption at its peak?
Grant Adminstration
Where did Republicans find support in the postwar era?
western farmers, merchants (along with eastern businesspeople)
Where did Democrats find support?
white southerners, northern city machines, recent immigrants of many religions (western farmers and certain groups of business people and owners)
Who were the Stalwarts?
those who wanted to nominate Grant for a third term
Who won the election of 1880?
James A. Garfield
What ended Garfield’s presidency?
he was shot entering the Washington DC railroad station by a disappointed office seeker
What effect did the Pendleton Act have on the spoils system?
allowed the president to decree which federal jobs would be filling according to rules set by a bipartisan Civil Service Commision
What was the Presidential Succession Act?
established a line of succession to the presidency in the event of the death of the vice president
What economic impact did the McKinley Tariff of 1890 have?
it dried up revenue by levying rates so high that some foreign products were kept enitrely out of the country
What issues helped Democrats win the congressional elections of 1890?
debts that were made harder to pay, when republicans pushed prohibition at the grassroots level, and democrats created a backfiring tariff (supported compulsory school etc.)
What did most states require of for children’s education in the late 1800s?
children recieve at least 5 years of schooling
What changes were made to the curricula of private colleges and universities?
adding courses of social and natural sciences, and the elective system made it possible for students to choose their own courses to study
During the 1800s, who did higher education become available to?
women
What did Mark Twain write about?
vivid and hilarious stories about his travels in the west
Who were newspapers directed toward since they could be sold more cheaply?
clerks, laborers, and homemakers
How did Joseph Pullitzer’s New York World appeal to readers?
he attacked unfair employers and grafted politicians with vigor, but was also the first one to use sensationalism (scare headlines)
Who was the first professional baseball team was from which city?
Cincinnati Red Stockings
Describe what a “cultural” outing in the city might feature.
it included going to the theater and vaudeville shows and also opera companies and symphony orchestras, theaters, and museums of fine arts (baseball game/picnic, cultural areas)
graft
acquisition of money or power in dishonest or questionable ways while public office
political machine
party organization in big cities that holds power by controlling votes, courts, and police
kickback
payback of a sum received from increased fees because of a confidential agreement or act of coercion
ward
division of a city for representative, electoral, or administrative purposes
lobbyist
person who promostes or secures the passage of legislation by influencing the public officials
township
local unit of government within a country
patronage
practice of elected officials to make appointments to unelected government positions for political advantage or repayment of favors
rider
unrelated amendment attached to a bill under legislative consideration
free-trader
one that practices or advocates trade without taxes or tariffs
protectionist
one who advocates government protection for domestic producers and manufacturers through restrictions on imports
antebellum
customs, manners, and institutions that existed before the Civil War
realism
european-influenced literary movement that strove for accurate representation of nature or real life without idealization
expatriate
person who leaves his or her native country to live elsewhere
yellow journalism
type of newspapers reporting in the late 1890s that featured sensational headlines and stories
McKinley Tariff
eliminated many imports
Thomas Nast
political cartoonist who brough out the corruption of the Tweed Ring
Graft
Thievery in public office
Mark Twain
Local-color novelist who wrote about his boyhood home in the Mississippi River
James Garfield
Republican dark-horse nominee, President in 1881, who was assassinated that same year
Chester Arthur
New York Stalwart who succeeded assassinated Republican President
Joseph Pullitzer
publisher of the New York World who used sensationalism to sell newspapers
William Tweed
Leader of New York’s Democratic machine
Antebellum
Term used to describe the pre-civil war era
Tammany Hall
meeting place of New York Democratic machine
Pendleton Act
legislation that classified government jobs and made them obtainable only by persons who passed a qualifiying exam
Stalwarts
group of republican machine politicians who opposed civil service reform
yellow journalism
sensational style and content of certain newspapers
tweed ring
practice of city contractors paying a percentage of their bill back to city officials
Tweed ring
political machine of New York’s Tammany Hall
How did technological advancements contribute to farmers’ debt?
the machinery had to be bought at a high price and the cost to ship the crops were high too although they sold for low prices
Why did some railroad companies bribe legislators?
in exchange for special favors, such as land grands, cash subsidies, pro-railroad laws, and tax exemptions
What is “stock watering”?
the practice of increasing the number of shares of a company without adding to the company’s assets.
How could railroads charge higher prices for short hauls?
because of their natural monopoly (which was having no competition for services in certain places)
What is “pooling”?
illegal agreements among individual railroads to divide the toal volume of freight among their lines and to keep rates high
Describe the Grange.
an early national farm organization that was founded in 1867 by Oliver Hudson Kelley. Its main purpose was to relieve the isolation and loneliness in the lives of farm families (it also recognized the importance of women on the farm); but then during the Panic of 1873 it became a reform lobby where people could talk about and solve their problems
How did “Granger Laws” help farmers?
it fixed maximum freight and passenger rates, forbade railroads to discriminate between places or shippers, and attempted to regulate monopolies of such farmers necessities as grain elevators and warehouses
Who opposed “Granger Laws” and why?
private businesses because they thought that government should not interfere with private enterprise and that it was unconstitutional
Describe the Supreme Court case, Munn v. Illinois. Who won?
it stated that common carriers and public utilities “stand in the gateway of commerce” and “take toll of all who pass” and therefore, must “submit to being controlled by the public for the common good”- private business/ those in favor of Granger laws won
What largely contributed to the Grange’s demise?
its venture into business activities
Describe the Wabash Railway decision.
the supreme court held that the states could control railroad traffic only within each states own borders; and because most railroad traffic crossed state boundaries, the courts decision effectively wiped out states regulation of railroad rates
What is the significance of the Interstate Commerce Act?
it declared that the rates that railroad charged must be “reasonable and just”; it forbade pooling, rebates, and higher rates for short rather than long hauls
What caused deflation after the Civil War?
the production of agricultural staples nearly quadrupling while the supply of money increased very little
What is the gold standard?
the monetary sytem in which a nation’s currency is based on the value of gold
Why did miners and farmers support the free silver movment?
they believed it would mean a cheaper dollar and higher crop prices
What agricultural groups combined to form the Populist Party? What did these groups have in common?
the southern and the wester alliance, and they shared similar demands like free sliver, more paper money, cheaper credit, government ownership of railroads, and the restoration of railroad bounty lands
What benefit do third parties add to American politics?
public attentin measures that the major parties later adopt as their own
Where did the Populist Party earn its electoral votes in 1892?
states lying west of the Mississippi river
How did Grover Cleveland alienate the Democratic Party?
forcing the repeal of the sherman silver purchase act (defended the gold standard)
Who did the Democrats nominate for President 1896? Why did he lose?
William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska, the newspapers abandoned him but most importantly free silver was a poor issue that he chose to base his entire campaign on (industry beat agriculture)
What happened to the Populists after the election of 1896?
they ceased to be a force in politics
What organization formed the backbone of the movement against liquor?
WCTO: Womens Christian Temperence Union
Describe the situation facing women industrial workers around the turn of the century.
they suffered exploitation (along with terrible working conditions, and most unions refused to accept women as members)
How did Karl Marx predict that capitalism would come to an end?
he said that fewer and fewer capitalists would control all wealth, while the mass of the people would be pushed into the ranks of the proletariat; and then the proletarians would rise and overthrow their masters
Who organized the American Socialist Party?
Eugene v. Debs
on what did Henry George blame the poverty of the industrial age?
the socialists by saying the ownership of land was being concentrated in the hands of speculators (and they didn’t put the land to use but instead waited for it to increase in value while charging high rents drove down wages and business profits)
How did Thorstein Veblen apply Darwinian principles to the wealthy?
by using conspicuous consumption; he believed that the leisure class would soon disappear and that their lavish spending was just for show
pooling
illegal agreements among individual railroads to divide the total volume of freight among their lines and to keep rates high
cooperative
enterprise or organization owned by and operated for the benefit of those using its services
inflation
decline in money’s value when more money is printed, resulting in increased prices of good and services
deflation
economic condition in which the volume of available money or credit decreases, resulting in the decline of the price of goods and services
gold standard
monetary system in which a nations currency is based on the value of gold
third party
political party operating in addition to two other major parties in a nation or state normally characterized by a two-party system
conspicuous consumption
lavish spending for show

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