On the strength of these experiments, it is now generally held that employees’ social needs (which needs were enumerated in Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs) can be satisfied within the organization and that when this is done, they become more productive (Montana and Charnov, 2000). Other motivational theories extant within the field of organizational leadership and which are used by organizations include Theory X and Theory Y, both of which have been associated with McGregor; and the models put forward by among others, David McClelland, Chris Argyris, and Rensis Likert (Miner, 1995).
Ethics and corporate governance: The question of whether an organization acts ethically or not has become a critical determinant of success for the business organization today. What with the corporate scandals that have dogged the corporate scene (WorldCom, Enron, Tyco, and many others come to mind), the outrage that greeted the runaway rates of executive pay, and the strident protests of animal rights activists. The rise of the ethical consumer (referred to in many quarters by the term ethical consumerism) has firmly put the ethics agenda at the forefront of every organization today.
Today, it is businesses which are perceived as being ethical (as opposed to behaving legally) in their dealings which stand the greatest chance of success (Harrison, Newholm, and Shaw, 2009). There are many areas in which businesses are required to behave ethically. Some of the potential unethical practices that firms may succumb to include: insider trading, kickbacks and bribery, executive compensation, facilitation payments, workplace discrimination, workplace surveillance, price gouging, animal testing, environmental pollution, industrial espionage, patent infringement, among many others (Harrison, Newholm, and Shaw, 2009).
It is in the best interest of the organization to behave ethically and avoid such unethical practices that have the potential to bring it down. By behaving ethically, the business stands to protect its reputation and image, which is critical to its success. It also stands to attract the ethical segment of the market, and avoid costs associated with unethical behavior (such as costly lawsuits) (Harrison, Newholm, and Shaw, 2009). 1.
Methods: The aim of this study is to evaluate the organizational leadership practices that are predominantly deployed at the Walgreen Company. In particular, the study aims at examining models that relate to employee motivation, workforce diversity, and organizational culture. According to Tobin (2001), the formulation of an effective research study usually begins with the determination of a research stance or research philosophy.
Accordingly, two such research philosophies have been identified. These include the phenomenological and positivist philosophies. While the former focuses on meanings and feelings and is subjective, the latter focuses on facts and figures and is objective. In the determination of the various models used in the organizational leadership of Walgreens, this study focused on facts and figures rather than meanings or feelings and its research stance can therefore be described as positivist.