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Week 14: Participative Management and Change

self-leadership
what happens when individuals act on their own to achieve the organization’s mission, vision, purpose, values, and goals
empowerment
process by which a leader or manager shares his or her power with subordinates
knowledge worker
employees who need and use information to perform their work
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory
proposition that people are intrinisically motivated in direct relationship to their needs
suggestion involvement
organization makes a small shift from the production line or control model. Employees are encouraged to contribute ideas
Theory X managers
believes subordinates dislike work and shirk responsibility, leading them to be more directive with the tendency to dictate work efforts
Theory Y managers
hold the belief that people enjoy work, crave responsibility, and strive for excellence
delegation
involves assigning work – and the authority and responsibility of that work – to others
force-field analysis
Kurt Lewin’s model of system-wide change that helps change agents diagnose the forces that drive and restrain proposed organizational change
unfreezing
the first part of the change process whereby the change agent produces disequilibrium between the driving and restraining forces
refreezing
the latter part of the change process in which systems and conditions are introduced that reinforce and maintain the desired behaviors
future search
system-wide group sessions, usually lasting a few days, in which participants identify trends and identify ways to adapt to those changes
change agent
anyone who possesses enough knowledge and power to guide and facilitate the change effort
action research
a problem-focused change process that combines action orientation (changing attitudes and behavior) and research orientation (testing theory through data collection and analysis)
appreciative inquiry
an organizational change strategy that directs the group’s attention away from its own problems and focuses participants on the group’s potential and positive elements
parallel learning structure
highly participative arrangements, composed of people from most levels of the organization who follow the action research model to produce meaningful organizational change

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