What does development mean? Essay
Development, which has many meanings In dfferent contexts, has a particular International component within the human development In this class. Therefore, It encompasses globalization and fighting poverty, and the development of institutions, economies, health care, and education. With the development of technology and internationalization integration of industrial production, economic development brings nations closer.
After the World War Two, the technology boom stimulated the global economic development. Along with the increase of productivity and pecialization on the global scale, information technology also helps to align with the development of nations. Economic globalization, which includes the international trade, International Investment, International currency, and International cooperation, has a profound Impact on the world economy. First of all, the productivity increases dramatically.
International specialization enhances the international cooperation and globalization lowers the barrier of trade, promoting the optimization of human capital and driving the exchange of merchandise, capital and resources. International finance Is the core of the international economic operation, facilitating the international production and capital internationalization. Countries are interdependent under the economic globalization. However, the negative effects on the enormous world Income polarization have been highly controversial.
For less developed countries, the globalization exacerbates the unequal development. Developed countries take away most of the benefits, leaving
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However, the historical evidence shows that “globalization and global poverty can be either positively related or negatively related to each other”. From 1870 to 1910, globalization and poverty increased together; but from 1910 to 1950, the declined trade accompanied by the increased global poverty because of two orld wars and the Great Depression; from 1950 to 2005, the global trade increased dramatically while the global poverty stayed the same. Part of the reason is the population Increase during most recent fifty years, which remains a major in the fight against the extreme poverty.
However, the five dimensions of the relationship between globalization and poverty, trade, finance, aid, migration, and ideas, could be managed under a certain condition to alleviate global poverty. Aimed at reducing the poverty and promote the economic progress in developing countries, many previous evelopment goals have been proposed over the decades. The International Development Target was formally adopted at the Thirty-fourth High-Level Meeting of the DAC on 6-7 May 1996 in Paris.
It is divided into three fields – economic well being, social development and environmental sustainability and regeneration. However, it 1 OF2 developing countries. Others argue that developing country governments are not bound by these poverty reduction goals, and that because the targets have been passed at various international conferences, many developing countries have already ndorsed the goals. Nonetheless, The Development Assistance Committee adopted an alternative set of development targets, the Millennium Development Goals, at the Millennium Summit in New York held on 6-8 September 2000.
There are eight goals with eighteen separate targets, which have expanded the list of forty-eight indicators to monitor the targets. In general, there are eight goals that United Nation hopes to achieve before 201 5, including eradication extreme poverty and hunger, achieving universal primary education, promotion of gender equality and empowerment of omen, reduction of child mortality, improvement of maternal health, combating HIW AIDS, malaria and other disease, and ensuring environmental sustainability and develop a Global Partnership for Development.
In 1970, the UN has also promoted the GNI 0. 7% Overseas Development Assistance. According to the statistics in 2009, only Sweden, Luxembourg, Norway, the Netherlands and Denmark meet the international Aid Target of donating 0. 7% of GNP. The criticism towards the development assistance has never stopped. Many think that the assistance is an inappropriate way of helping poor countries. Some worried that rather than focusing on the quantity of the donation, there is increasing focus on the quality of aid.
Around the world, social organizations are actively engaged helping to achieve Development goals by 2015, but the result does not seem optimistic so far. Amartya Sen, the winner of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Economics, said development could be seen as a process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy. Furthermore, he insisted that promoting human freedom is a broader view of development than Just focusing on economic development such as growth in GNP, rise in personal income per capita income), or social modernization.