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Why do you think physical and chemical laws relate functions to structures and vice versa?

Case Analysis Week 4

1. Physical and chemical laws govern living organisms because of a living organism’s physical and chemical nature. Read the section, “How Physical Laws Limit Animal Form” located in your text on page 482. In your response, explain how physical and chemical laws affect a living organism. Also, provide an example of how an organism has evolved to adapt to its physical or chemical environment. Then, answer the following question: Why do you think physical and chemical laws relate functions to structures and vice versa?

            The world of living things is generally affected and is governed by both the chemical and physical law. Live organism reacts and develops as they all relate to these empirical aspects, which govern their abilities and possibilities. Through integrating and adapting to rules in the empirical world that the living organism tends to progress and develop into a more complex life as part of the evolution in this planet.

            The chemical laws are the laws of nature pertaining to the aspect of chemistry. Among the most fundamental concept in this aspect is the law of conservation of mass stating that the quantity of matter and energy undergo no detectable change during an ordinary

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chemical reaction thus, matter or energy is not loss but can only be transfer or transform into a different state. For the human society, adapting to this empirical law requires further understanding and exploration thus, giving birth to different fields of knowledge such as thermodynamics and kinetics. Through knowing critically the boundaries and limits of the chemical laws, human beings are able to use the concepts of the nature towards their advantage particularly in developing ways to preserve energy for cases or situations where it is needed.

            The physical law on the other hand, pertains to the scientific generalization based on empirical observation. These are the concepts and scientific principles that are solely based on scientific knowledge and empirical observation.  Following this law, everything in this world must be symmetrical, proportionate and is stable with respect to nature or the empirical world. Knowing critical this laws enables the human society to develop and adapt to these boundaries giving birth to certain scientific manipulations of the physical world such as space and time manipulation and quantum manipulations for higher needs and sciences.

2. Negative feedback loops are ways that the body can achieve homeostasis – a balance – in the body. How might a negative feedback loop explain why people who lose large amounts of weight gain that weight back? Explain the weight cycle in terms of the negative feedback loop. Do you think that weight in humans is regulated by a negative feedback loop? Why or why not? Do you think that human weight is controlled by a negative feedback loop that is genetically determined? Why or why not?

            Negative feedback loops are among the ways that the body can achieve homeostasis or equilibrium. This is the reverse reaction of the body to the positive feedback loop to regain the state of balance within the system. In the human aspect, the state of balance differs primarily on each individual and the body reacts on different levels just to attain this equilibrium. When a change occurs, the body can respond in either the positive or negative feedback loop. Indeed, the negative feedback is the opposite or reverse reaction to a given stimuli or condition in the pursuit of attaining balance.

            The human body is and all of its aspects are regulated by either the positive and negative feedback loops. The weight in particular is regulated and or affected by the negative feedback loop to attain its normal equilibrium state, which is basically determined by the genetic characteristics of a person. This is commonly manifested with the reaction of the human body to certain weight characteristics based on the genetic factor  through the manipulation of the body mass index of a person. If the body exceeds its normal weight characteristic, the body react to it through developing certain body adjustments such as increase in perspiration level, increase in internal anatomical activities and release of certain hormones to reverse the condition thus, acquiring balance in the body system. At most time however, the negative feedback loop reaction of the human body as related to weight often results to certain health problems .

3. By knowing science, people can make informed choices. For example, many sport drinks companies claim that by drinking their products, the body can replenish the water and electrolytes that it lost. When it replenishes these nutrients, it can rehydrate and regulate its body temperature. Once the body temperature returns to normal, it can then return to physical activity. In your response, explain why sport drinks might or might not aid in thermoregulation. Why do you think knowing about thermoregulation can help you make informed choices about whether to consume sport drinks or water for staying hydrated, and thus maintaining body temperature?

            Science, along with its laws that govern each empirical field in the present, is widely implemented in various fields and aspects in the society. The human society explores the different fields in sciences to discover significant knowledge and use it to the advantage of the people. With the development of more advance scientific understanding that the present society is able to determine better applications of these sciences and incorporate it to their actual life of the society for further adaptation and progress.

            Consider the advance invention of sports drinks, which uses the scientific principles of homeostasis and body feedback loops to regain stability in its system. These sports drinks are developed to replenish the minerals, electrolytes and fluids that are lost during rigorous physical activities thus, aiding the body in regaining its normal balance. Indeed, resorting to sports drink is indeed beneficial for the human body however, through understanding the concept of anatomical thermoregulation, the person will consider that the human body has its own normal reaction to its condition to regain its balance. The reaction of sweating, increase in breathing, and others are mainly part of the body reactions to regain temperature balance and dependency on commercial sports drink tend to disrupt this normative body reaction. Indeed, through intrinsically understanding the concept of body thermoregulation, each individual can properly choose or decide on the most effective approach towards aiding the normal body reaction such as focusing on the rehydration approach instead of the commercial value of each product.

4.  By knowing science, people can make informed choices. For example, companies that sell sport supplements make billions of dollars each year claiming that by consuming their products, the person can lose or gain weight. In your response, assume that body weight is genetically determined and that any gain or loss in weight will cause the body to activate homeostatic mechanisms to cause the body to return to the original weight. What would you tell the companies that sell these products? Why would knowing about the science of weight loss/gain help you make informed decisions about sport supplements?

            The human body is designed to have its own homeostatic characteristics which manifests as its balance state as determined by its own genetic makeup. As related to this, the body functions and mechanism also have their normative reactions towards maintaining and achieving their normal state of balance. When the body is face with a stimuli or a condition that tends to alter this normative balance, the body reacts with feedback loops to regain its normative stability through different anatomical mechanism affecting its body systems.

            Consider the example of commercial brand weight-loss pills and their effects to the body homeostatic characteristics. Each person’s normal weight and mass value is significantly determined by his or her genetic characteristics, which is ideally unique to each person. However, the pharmaceutical companies producing commercial brand weight-loss pills develop their products based on the normative and ideal value of weight factor in the society. As such, each person has different reactions to these weight-loss pills as the characteristics promoted by these products significantly differ to the respective homeostatic factor of each person. Because of this interference, the body will activate its normal homeostatic mechanism to return the body to its normal weight thus, contradicting the effects of the weight-loss product making them generally ineffective for some individual.

            Stating these to the companies producing these weight-loss products, their campaigns and promotions should avoid general conclusion in their views towards the society. Each individual has their own normal body characteristics making them respectively different to the normative state promoted by these companies. As such, each individual has their distinctive reactions to the products wherein for some they are effective while for some they are ineffective  and others in moderation. In addition, certain weight-loss products tend to promote negative feedback loop in regaining the homeostatic balance in the user’s body causing likely health problems for some individual. For which, pharmaceutical companies producing weight-loss pills should also be cautious in promoting the use of their products for wide social use.

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