1st Professor of wildlife management. Known as the father of modern wildlife management.
Pushed migratory Bird hunting stamp act through congress. He was an Iowa political cartoonist & avid conservationist. Drew the first duck stamp.
Appointed by FDR as Director of Bureau of Biological survey. Implenmented cooperative wildlife research units. 39 units total.
2 Significant groups formed during the 1930’s
The wilderness Society and the wildlife society.
Federal aid to wildlife restoration act. Excised 11% sales tax on guns & ammunition for game management. Required match from states. Used for: land acquisition & restoration, research & training, Salaries & equipment, incentive programs, Hunter safert programs.
What acts did the same for fisheries as PR act did for wildlife?
Dingell-Johnson Act and Wallop-Breaux Act
The Endangered Species Act
1973. Authorized Sec. of interior to determine plant & animal spp., subspp, & pop,. faced w/ extinciton & form a T&E list. Sponsored research on these spp. Outlined porcedure for formation of recovery plan. Authorized habitat acquisition. Prohibited import & export. Prohibited public & private from taking T&E spp. FWS responsible for all exvept marine fish, which are managed by USDC NOAA NMFS
The 7 sisters
1. Wildlife is held in the public trust
2. Game protected by law (no market hunting)
3. Wildlife management is a Democratic process
4. All have access to wildlife
5.Wanton waste is prohibited
6.Wildlife is an international resource
7.Managemet is science-based
The Conservation President. Suggested Doctrine of conservation. Founded boone & crockett club. Passed lacey act. Initiated 1st National wildlife refuge.
Doctrine of conservation
Conservation through wise use = sustainability
Conservation is public responsibility; science is the tool to achieve it
What does the Lacey Act do?
Prohibits interstate transportation of illegally-harvested wildlife. Made it a federal offence.
Where was the first National wildlife refuge?
Pelican Island, Florida
What are Leopold’s 5 evolutionary stages of wildlife management?
Hunting control, Predator control, Refugia, Artificial replenishment, environmental control. Environmental control is the most important and should be done first.
What is CARA and what does it do?
The Conservation & Reinvestment Act
Proposal to divert outer continental shelf (ocs) rental payments to the federal government to, among other entities, state wildlife agencies for nongame wildlife management efforts. Non approved by congress but state wildlife grant program adopted in 2001 required comprehensive wildlife conservation plans from the state.
When was the first game warden in TN
What ideas to help manage wildlife were borrowed from Europe?
Seasons & limits, Predator Control, Male deer only ect.
Dr. George Grinnell
Editor, “Forest & Stream”, Founded Audubon Society. Warned of dangers of lead shot to waterfowl a hundred years before something was done about it.
What is the Public Trust Doctrine?
It is a document/ law that says a landowner does not own the wildlife that is on the land. The public owns all wildlife.
What is USDI FWS
United states department of interior fish & wildlife service.
What is USDC NOAA NMFS
United states department of commerce national oceanic and atmospheric administration national marine fisheries service
What is USDI USGS BRD?
United states department of commerce united states geologic survey biological resources division
What is USDA APHIS WS?
United states department of agriculture animal & plant health inspection service wildlife services (damage management.)
What two programs come form the farm bill that benefit wildlife?
Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)
Wetland Reserve Program (WRP)
What does the CRP do?
Ten year period where land is taken out of agriculture purpose and must specify what is to be done with it.
What does the WRP do?
Takes land out of agriculture production permanently and restores it to wetlands.
What was timing with wildlife?
Tried to get congress to pass a tax on outdoor products & paid to non game. Tax was less than 1% and did not pass.
what are the two primary approaches to wildlife management?
Single-species management and Ecosystem Management.
What are the 3 most common ideas in most definitions of wildlife management?
Efforts directed toward wild animal populations
Relationships of habitat to those wild animal populations (otherwise, it’s just zoology)
Manipulation of habitats or populations to meet some human goal. most management efforts aimed at conservation or preservation. Could mean increasing, decreasing, or maintaining pop. levels.
What is wanton waste?
Killing an animal for the sake of just killing. Example: Duck hunting and shooting a duck that lands in an to far for you to walk.
Geer vs. connecticut
1896 court case where a land owner had people coming on to his land taking mussels. Said that all the mussels are his. Supreme Court Ruled that wildlife is held in public trust.
Martin vs. Waddell
Prohibit the interstate transport of fowl.
The ESA was followed by what act in TN?
The Tennessee Nongame and Endangered or Threatened Wildlife species conservation act of 1974
What happened to the TN game & fish commission in 1905
It was dismantled and rebuilt until Model law passed in 1940
What year did the model law pass and what was it?
1940. It was a model that was used to set up state wildlife agency’s. It was modified to fit the state.
In 1974 TN Game & Fish Commission was renamed what?
Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA). Renamed to support the Endangered species act.
How is the current wildlife commission set up?
13 appointed members. 9 by the governor. 4 by the speakers of house senate. 3 ex-officio members. commissioner of Agriculture (non voting) Commissioner of environment & conservation (non-voting). Governor
Name the Organization that had an affect on waterfowl in the 1980’s.
North American Waterfowl Management Plan
What did the TN wetland acquisition act do?
Earmarked finds from increase in real estate transfer tax for purchase of wetlands by TWRA. Goes to state for wetland purchases of wetland. Wetlands are most valuable.
In 1991 TN Department of Conservation was renamed what?
TN Department of Environment & Conservation (TDEC)
What species is the TWRA responsible for?
Verts., Mollusks, crawfish
Market hunting eradicated what species in TN?
Bison, wolves, cougar, elk, ivory-billed woodpecker
Market hunting heavily impacted what species in TN?
White-tailed deer, turkey, wood duck, otter, beaver.
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