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Wildlife Cons. and Mang.

What is wildlife?
Free- living, wild animals of major significance to humans
What is wildlife management?
the manipulation of wildlife populations and habitat to achieve a goal
What are the three concepts of wildlife management perceived by Aldo Leopold?
1) The denser the human population, the more intense the system of game management needed to supply the same proportion of people with hunting
2) The recreational value of a head of game is inverse to the artificiality of its origin, and hence in a broad way to the intensiveness of the system of game management which produced it
3) A proper game policy seeks a happy medium between the intensity of management necessary to maintain a game supply and that which would deteriorate its quality or recreational value
What is the Wildlife Management triad?
Humans–> Wildlife Populations–> Environment and habitat
Explain the difference between Preservation and Conservation.
-Preservation is an inactive form of management.
-Conservation is an active form of management that includes direct and indirect manipulation of the environment.
What are the 4 goals of WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT?
1) INCREASE POPULATION
2) REDUCE POPULATION
3) MANAGE FOR SUSTAINED RESOURCES AND POPULATION
4) DO NOTHING
What is market hunting? Why is it bad?
It is hunting a species with no limit. It leads to the exploitation of the harvested species.
What is the name of the first established wildlife refuge?
Pelican Island
Name the 7 pillars of the North American Model of Wildlife Management.
1)Wildlife as a Public Trust Resource
2) Elimination of Markets for Game
3) Allocation of Wildlife by Law
4) Kill Only for Legitimate Purpose
5) Wildlife as an International Resource
6)Science-based Wildlife Policy
7) Democracy of Hunting
Explain the difference between Adaptation and Evolution.
-Adaptation is a trait that increases fitness in an individual.
-Evolution is a change in a population over time.
True or false?
Evolution implies a mechanism.
False
What are the 3 observations of natural selection?
1) Populations increase geometrically through reproduction
2) All individuals are different (Mendell)
3) Populations remain constant due to lack of resources
What are the 2 postulates that the 3 observations of natural selection led to?
1) Individuals compete for resources
2) The most “fit” individual gets the right to mate and resources
What does “Fitness” mean?
It is the relative reproductive success of an individual in the long term.
How is Fitness measured? What are the indirect indicators?
-It is measured by the comparison of reproductive rates and survival rates between types.
– Indirect indicators: Morphological, Physiological, Behavioral
How do you define ADAPTATION?
-A trait that increases fitness relative to an alternative trait.
What are Life history traits?
-Abiotic and biotic factors that act through natural selection to produce a suite of adaptations.
True or False?

Natural selection produces perfect adaptation.

False- can’t be perfect (No population has all possibilities available.
True or False?

Natural selection acts on the past and present.

True– can’t anticipate future conditions.
True or False?

Natural selection acts only on the inherited components of an individual.

True
True or False?

Natural selection acts on the population but is expressed by the individual.

False–
Natural selection acts on the individual but is expressed by the populations.
True or False?

Favorable genes can produce both favorable and unfavorable effects.

True
True or False?

Natural selection guards against the extinction of species.

False
What is Convergence?
When other organisms of different ancestry adapt to similar environments and thus develop similar characteristics.
What is Adaptive radiation?
It is the divergence of a single lineage to provide a variety of forms. (different beak sizes in birds)
What explains the distribution of similar species?
-The movement of tectonic plates.
-The movement of the Laurasia and Gondwanland.
What are 3 bird species that live on different continents and are result of adaptive radiation?
Rhea, Ostrich, and Emu
How do you define an Abiotic environment?
– A set of conditions that determine where an individual can live and reproduce.
Define Conditions.
– factors that affect an animal but are not influenced by the populations
What is Introgression?
The process of taking some feature of one species into the genome of another. (Hybridization)
What is a ring species?
A series of geographically neighboring populations that are closely related.
What does allopatric mean with reference to genetic divergence?
Populations isolated by geographic barriers.
What does sympatric mean with reference to genetic divergence?
When a species breaks up into different species within the same geographical area.
What is Polymorphism ?
The occurrence together in the same habitat of two or more discontinuous forms of a species in such proportions that the rarest of them cannot merely be maintained by recurrent mutation or immigration. (snow geese)
What is Nutritional ecology?
– The science of relating an animal to its environment through nutritional interaction using Survival, Reproduction, and Life history.
What is the universal currency for survival?

a. Water
b. Energy
b. Money
c. Air

b. Energy
What is BMR?
BMR is the Basal Metabolic Rate in which energy is being used when an animal is lying, calm or not stressed.
True or False?

The environment doesn’t determine how high or low the BMR is for an animal.

False
How many amino acids are there?
25
List 5 of the 10 essential amino acids.
1) Lysine
2) Valine
3) Leucine
4) Methionine
5) Arginine
Which vitamins are water soluble?
Vitamin C and B
Which vitamins are fat soluble (stored in the body)?
Vitamins A, D, E, K
Optimal Foraging Theory
a set of mathematical models predicting the patterns of animal behavior that might be favored by natural selection.
OR
An organism’s ability to obtain forage that optimizes its fitness.
What are some examples of important macroelements?
Ca, P, Mg, Na
What are some examples of important trace elements?
Fe, Cu, S, Se
What is the difference between preformed water and metabolic water?
-Preformed water comes from the tissues of food.
-Metabolic water comes from the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins and fats
What are the 3 major classes of secondary plant compounds? Give examples with each.
1) Terpenes– oils form citrus fruits
2) Soluble phenol compounds– Condensed tannins
3) Alkaloids, cardenolides, and other compounds– Nicotine
What is the difference between Capital breeders and Income breeders?
-Capital breeders have all their energy and nutrients for breeding from body stores before breeding.

-Income breeders obtain the needed energy and nutrients for breeding at the time of reproduction.

What is habitat management most often aimed at?
Providing Food and Cover
Name 3 REASONS WHY OPTIMAL FORAGING IS A GREAT STABILIZER.
1) An adaptive predator shifts its attention away from some species as they become more rare.

2)

What are two important Acts that contributed to wildlife management?
– Pittman-Robertson Act
– Dingel-Johnson Act

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