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Wildlife Management Midterm1

European model
humans as stewards of the land, the land and the animals on it can be owned by individuals. Hunteing and game only for the rich
7 Tenets of N Amer Wildlife Model
1.Wildlife is held in the public trust
2. Eliminating commerce in dead wildlife
3. allocating wildlife use thru dnw (prevent Euro elite only access to wildlife)
4. hunting opportunity for all
5. wildlife may be killed only for legitimate reasons. (defend property, self defence, food, fur)
6. wildlife is an international resoure (migratory bird act, seal fur)
7. science is the basis for wildlife policy
Low quality professional literature
white papers (personal opinion
newspapers
grey literature
magazines
popular books
scientific symposia- not peer reviewed
Medium quality professional literature
graduate theses, agency reports (usually based on good science, but not peer reviewed)
High quality professional literature
peer reviewed journal articles (open, blind, double blind)
peer reviewed book chapters
scientific symposia- peer reviewed
book- treatise
peer reviewed content on net (WSB, PloS ONE, Cons Ecology)
Data Quality Act
**Holdren memo on scientific integrity**
peer review takes precedence over expert witnesses
Office politics should not affect science published by agencies.
Most important principle of WM —?
The resource comes first!!
resource
(as in Natural resource), the wildlife an the habitats upon which they depend
used to be game spp (food or monetary value (fur))
today- all free living mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians (not invertebrates)
wildlifer
collective term for wildlife professionals
Def. of Wildlife Management NOW
Def. of Wildlife Management evolved
originally game spp, 1937- all vertebrates
Era of Abundance 1598-1849
went from being overwhelmed by wildlife to overwhelming wildlife and then trying to dealing with the loss of wildlife
era of exploitation 1850-1899
Intensive market hunting, some state rules made to help wildlife, temporary hunting season closures, wardens, hunting licenses begin to be used. By 1880 all states have game laws
Geer vs Connecticut
supreme court rules wildlife is the property of the state. water is owned by no one, oyster/clam beds under water half of time (tide) so owned by person or state?
Lacey Act of 1900
Outlaws interstate commerce of wildlife taken in violation of state law. Most powerful federal law.
Era of Protection 1900-1929
1840’s hunting clubs started, against market hunting, more for fair kill
Boone and Crockett Club
stop the destruction of wildlife and habitats (especially the unrestricted slaughter of big game)
– Conserve wildlife and wildlands that belong to the people
John Muir (1863-1914)
preservationist philosophy
Wildlife administration
coordination and management of people (biologists, administrators, accountants, lawyers, etc) who work to solve problems, perpetuate and protect the resource, manage physical plants, manage finances and human resources etc. under organizational policies
Principle: WM is as much about managing people as it is about managing Wildlife
people can try to do crazy things
Who manages wildlife?
All states, fed gov, NGOs, private landowners
Policy
an overall statement or plan embracing the general goals and acceptable procedures of the functioning body.
set by governing boards, commissions, political bodies, or primary leaders
Principles of Public Trust Doctrine
• Wildlife can be owned by no individual but is held in public trust by the state for all
• The state has no power to delegate it s trust duties or transfer trust ownership to private concerns
• The state has the duty to fulfill trust responsibilities (cannot sit idly by)
Lacy Act (1900)
• First federal law to protect wildlife
• Interstate movement of wildlife taken in violation of state law
• Amended many times
Abby Dodge Decision (1912)
• Issue: harvest of sponges in Florida
• Supreme Court upheld state jurisdiction
• First and last Supreme Court statement
restricting role of federal government
Professionalism
The desired and expected characteristics of behavior exhibited by a professional wildlife biologist executing his or her duties on behalf of the agency or resource.
Advocacy/Activism
the overt or focused argument to achieve a particular outcome, usually to the exclusion of other potential outcomes
Wildlife Science
The application of the scientific method or [reliable] knowledge either to understand wildlife ecology or to help manage wildlife
Science
the organized acquisition and structuring of knowledge derived from observation, study, and experimentation for the purpose of determining the nature or principles of what is being studied
Properties of Science
Structured and Hierarchical
Objective
Transparent and Repeatable
Fundamental goal – seek the truth by
rejecting non-truth
• Science proves nothing
• [Scientists are imperfect]
Hierarchy of science
Idea
question
hypothesis- unproven supposition
theory-hypothesis or set of hypotheses that has withstood substantial repeated scientific scrutiny
Hierarchy of Research
gestalt (experienced opinion)
Trial and error (unorganized learning)
Obersvational Research (correlational relationship)
Experimental Research (cause and effect relationships)
Experimental research
strongest inference-most reliable knowledge
hypothetico-deductive method
uses randomization, replication, treatments, local control
Observational research
most wildlife research
also called inductive research
correlation
variables covary
statistical modeling to explain variation in the response variable
Randomization
equal probability of selection
Replication
the number of independent, random saples
local control
controls are parallel observations
Accuracy
the quality of an estimate
made up of bias and precision
Bias
how far the average value of measurements are from the true value
Precision
the closeness of repeated measurements to each other
measure of variation
process variation
sampling variation
sampling unit
the thing you take data on
usually individual or plot (area)
sample
the collection of data you take from sampling units
sample size
number of independent sampling units in your sample
sampling population (statistical population)
the population from which the sample is taken
this does not have to be a group of animals, can be a group of plots
population unit
the thing we want data about (individuals or plots)
inference population
the population to which your sample is informative
biological population
group of interbreeding organisms
a functional group of interbreeding individuals of the same species whose members have more interaction with each other than with other groups of the same species
subitize
to perceive at a glance the number of items presented, the limit for humans is about seven

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