It is very important for the manager to choose the members of his team efficiently, so that they contribute to the development of the company. Of course, the technical equipment of the company is also very important for the functioning of the firm, but without the personal factor, machines will never work. It has been discovered long ago that different people can increase their performance due to the impact of different motivation tools.
Owing to the fact that all of the people have some characteristic features, they recognize different incentives in their work in different ways. In order to learn the most important aspects of the employees’ motivation and the role of motivation factors in the employees’ performance, many motivation theories have been introduced. The first motivation theories which were described by researchers in the 1960s included drive theory, reinforcement theory, theory of subconscious motives.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs was also considered one of the greatest achievements of the world scientific thought. The analysis of motivation tools connected with the theory of goal-setting started in the middle of 1960s and was introduced as the alternative to the theories mentioned above. The goal-setting motivation theory is very different from other motivation theories due to the specific object of its research- aims and objectives of employees as the driving force of their performance.
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“Goal setting theory was based on the premise that much human action is purposeful, in that it is directed by conscious goals. ” (Lens, Nuttin, 1985, p. 15). The effectiveness of the goal-setting motivation theory versus other theories of motivation can be explained through the change of the new object of studies- goals and objectives. These aspects were not touched as much in previous theories and thus did not reflect all of the major aspects of human motivation.
The representatives of the goal-setting motivation theory argued that human beings were the only creatures in the world who were guided by different goals and aims in their activity. Even though animals are also able to set some schedule for their activities, those are only humans who are able to plan for a long-term period, determine the most important goals for them and perform all of the actions in order to achieve their goals. The theory of goal-setting motivation is thus based on the opinion that all of the actions of people are purposeful and driven by people’s consciousness.
“Goal-setting theory was developed by starting with the situationally specific, conscious motivational factors closest to action: goals and intentions. ” (Hartmut et al, 1990, p. 6). On the contrary, other motivation theories argued that people’s motivation was more influenced by subconscious factors of which people were not aware: “In contrast, need and motive theories started with more remote and general (often subconscious) regulators and tried to work forward to action, usually ignoring situationally specific and conscious factors.
” (Hartmut et al, 1990, p. 6). The goal-setting theory of motivation gives a full analysis to the goals which are being set in the workplace and argues for their importance in the increase of individual performance. “The two attributes of goals that have been most extensively studied are content and intensity. ” (Lens, Nuttin, 1985, p. 15). The content of goals which are being set by the employees determines the quality of their work. The intensity of goals describes the quantitative side of the goals.
Both attributes are equally important in employee’s motivation. The goal-setting theory of motivation also states that people’s motivation is in many ways connected with their commitment to the goals which they set for themselves, or which are being set for them in the workplace. “Challenging goals will lead to high performance only if the individual is committed to them. ” (Hartmut et al, 1990, p. 8). Oftentimes, commitment to goals is achieved and the company’s performance increases.