The techniques for dealing with stress on the job involved both the prevention of stress and its reduction and elimination. Techniques that individual employees can practice on and off the job include relaxation training, biofeedback, and behavior modification. Some methods provided by organization include altering the organizational climate, providing employee assistance programs and treating victims of stress-related illnesses (Cahill, 2003; Landy, 1985; Williams, 2003). Industrial/organizational psychologists have proposed several organizational techniques for managing stress at work:
Emotional Climate Control. Because of the stressors of modern organizational life is change, the organization must provide sufficient support to enable employees to adapt to change. This can be accomplished by providing a climate of esteem and regard for employees and by allowing them to participate in all decisions involving change in their work and in the structure of the organization (Chang et al. , 2006; Landy, 1985; Williams, 2003). 2. Provision of social support. Social support can reduce one’s vulnerability to stress.
Organizations can enhance social support by facilitating the cohesiveness of work groups and by training the supervisors to be supportive of their subordinates (Landy, 1985; Williams, 2003). 3. Redefinition of employee roles. To reduce the stress caused by role ambiguity, managers must clearly state to their subordinates what is expected of them and what the precise scope and responsibilities of their jobs are (Landy, 1985; Williams, 2003). 4. Elimination of work overload and work underload.
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Proper selection and training, equitable promotion decisions and fair distribution of work can do much to eliminate these causes of stress. Provision of assistance to stressed employees. More and more organizations today are recognizing the harmful effects that stress can have on employee health and productivity. As a result, they are providing in-house counseling programs that teach individual stress-control techniques and supplying facilities for physical exercise (Landy, 1985; Williams, 2003).
Cahill, C. A. 2001. Women and stress. In Annual Review of Nursing Research, 19, 229-249. Chang, E. M. , Daly, J. , Hancock, K. M. , Bidewell, J. W. , Johnson, A. , Lambert, V. A. , & Lambert, C. E. 2006. The Relationships Among Workplace Stressors, Coping Methods, Demographic Characteristics, and Health in Australian Nurses. Journal of Professional Nursing, 22(1), 30-38. Landy, F. J. 1985. Psychology of Work Behavior. 3rd Ed. Dorsey Press. Sauter, Steven, et al. , “Stress at Work” NIOSH publication. Retrieved December 20, 2007 <http://www. cdc. gov/niosh/stresswk. html> Williams, C. 2003. Stress at Work. Canadian Social Trends, Autumn, 7-13.