What is the difference between the first and second phases of the Industrial Revolution?
First phase: Iron and steam engines are dominant tools, British textile industry is driving force, inventions were the product of individuals, railroad was dominant form of transportation
Second phase: Electricity and steel are dominant tools, other powers like United States and Germany begin to take over, companies hired professionals to make new inventions, cars were dominant form of transportation
How did Britain try to protect its status as the world’s only industrialized nation?
By not allowing industrial inventions to be exported
What was the second nation that industrialized?
How were other nations able to industrialize like Britain?
They had more abundant supplies of coal, iron and natural resources and they could follow Britain’s lead
What two countries overtook Britain to become the leading industrial powers?
The United States and Germany
Why did British export bans fail?
William Cockerill opened spinning and weaving factories in Belgium
Why did Russia industrialize so slowly?
Social and political conditions did not allow them to industrialize faster
Why was Japan able to industrialize so rapidly?
A political revolution in 1868 made industrialization a priority
What were some of the countries that underwent industrialization?
Britain, United States, Germany, Japan, Russia, Canada, Belgium, New Zealand, Australia
What changes did newly industrialized nations undergo?
Rapid urbanization, long working hours in unsafe factories, increased productivity, more access to goods, lower prices
Why were Western nations able to dominate the world?
Because they were industrialized and other nations were not
Who was Henry Bessemer?
A British engineer who invented a way to make steel from iron
What was steel used in?
Tools, bridges and railroads
Who was Alfred Nobel?
He invented dynamite, which was used in both construction and warfare. He also created the Nobel Prize
Who was Michael Faraday?
An English chemist who created the first electric motor and the first dynamo
What is a dynamo?
A machine that generates electricity
Who was Thomas Edison?
An American inventor who created the lightbulb
What are interchangeable parts?
Identical components that can be used in place of one another
What was the effect of interchangeable parts?
It made it easier to create and repair products
What is an assembly line?
A division of labor where each part of the process is assigned to a different worker
What was the effect of the assembly line?
It made production faster and cheaper, lowering the price of goods
Who was Nikolaus Otto?
German engineer who invented a gasoline powered combustion engine
What was the combustion engine used for?
To power cars, planes and farm equipment
Who was Gottlieb Daimler?
Creator of the first four-wheeled automobile
Who were Orville and Wilbur Wright?
American inventors who created the first airplane capable of flight
Who was Samuel Morse?
Inventor of the telegraph and the Morse code
What is a telegraph?
A device that uses electricity to send coded messages through wires
Who was Alexander Graham Bell?
American inventor who created the telephone
Who was Guglielmo Marconi?
Italian inventor who created the radio
What is stock?
A share in a company
Why were stocks needed?
Because entrepreneurs needed capital in order to invest in new technologies
What is a corporation?
A business owned by many investors who buy shares of stock
What was the economic impact of the development of corporations?
They began to dominate entire industries and set up monopolies and cartels
What is a monopoly?
When one business controls the sale of a product
What is a cartel?
When a group of corporations join together to fix prices
Why did some people want regulation of businesses?
They felt that corporations were destroying the free market system through monopolies and cartels
How did science, technology and big business promote industrial growth?
They allowed industries to increase efficiency and production, causing industrialization to spread across the world
How did technology help industry expand
Technology allowed industries to work longer and more effectively. Electric lights meant workers could work day and night, telephones allowed workers to quickly send messages, cars allowed for rapid movement, typewriters allowed workers to take down information quickly
How did capital lead to new business organization?
Because companies needed so much capital they created stocks. Because so many investors bought stock businesses formed corporations
How might government change as a result of industrialization?
Government might have to create new regulations for rapidly expanding corporations and factories
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