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Yersinia pestis Essay

An Examination of Yearnings Pests and its Effects Yearnings pests is a gram negative, rod-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacterium, known for causing the plague (Catalina). Y. pests was first discovered by a French-born Swiss bacteriologist named Alexander Yearns in 1894 (Catalina). Yearns stumbled upon this bacterium while in China studying a plague epidemic there. Before its actual discovery Yearnings pests had been causing havoc all over the world.

About the worst disease in world history, the Black Death or Bubonic Plague which killed over 75 million people with approximately 25-50 million deaths accrued in Europe can be undistributed to this relatively small microorganism (Bubonic Plague). It may have reduced the world’s population from an estimated 450 million people to between 355-375 million in sass’s (Bubonic Plague). Beginning in Asia and spread by the Mongol tribes that dominated that vast area, the disease devastated China and the Middle East, interrupting long distance trade and cross-cultural encounters that had flourished for two centuries (Bubonic Plague).

The plague was carried into Europe in 1347 by flea-bearing black rats infesting the commercial vessels that brought goods to Mediterranean ports (Bubonic Plague). The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Rupee’s population (Bubonic Plague).

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The Black Death is endemic to rodents and transmitted to humans by the common flea. In humans the disease invades the blood the glands under the arms and groin that would swell, sometimes to the size of an apple or an egg, and dark blotches would also appear on the skin (Catalina).

These blotches had the same meaning for everyone, on whom they appeared. Everyone died within a week of the appearance of the blotches lending to the distinction of the 1348 outbreak (Bubonic Plague). Our best guess is that there as more than one variety of plague at work in Europe. There are three varieties of plague, the first being the Bubonic Plague. This form of plague is transmitted by the bite of an infected flea rat and it takes its name from the swollen infected lymph nodes called buboes that are found within the lymph system (Bubonic Plague).

The victim develops a high fever, chills, muscle aches, headache, and extreme weakness. Within about 24 hours 1 or more buboes appear as painful, red, and hot, while swelling of the groin occurs if the flea bite was on the leg, or they appear in the underarm or neck if the bite was on the arms, neck, or upper body (Bubonic Plague). Without proper treatment, the victim eventually collapses, becomes delirious, and may have convulsions. Then, as plague bacteria spread through the bloodstream, symptoms of the skepticism plague may begin.

Skepticism Plague, which attacks the blood, may occur as a complication of either bubonic or pneumonia plague (Bubonic Plague). It is not spread from person to person, but characterized by the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. Of the three forms, pneumonia plague is the most deadly and the quickest killer. Pneumonia Plague which attacks the lungs and can be spread from person to person by coughing is generally detrimental due to inhaling as few as 100 of the bacteria (Bubonic Plague). Because the inhaled bacteria have already adapted to the body of the first person, they arrive fully armed with their Yearnings pests By Ingression toxin-delivery mechanism. As in bubonic plague, the bacteria thirst encounter macrophages, in this case alveolar macrophages and the lungs defense cells. Some of the bacteria go into macrophages resulting in an influx of Amps and then inflammation (Catalina). An individual’s lungs fill causing complications with respiratory patterns. As little as one day after inhalation individuals start displaying severe symptoms of pneumonia which can rapidly lead to personal demise.

Analyzing the fact that our skin holds an average of 1,000,000 bacteria these 100 microorganisms seemingly pack an extraordinary punch (Catalina). It may seem hard to believe that a disease that presumably caused the death of millions during the 14th, 1 5th, and 16th centuries is still prevalent and active in the United States in the 21st century. Each ear in the United States, between 10- 30 individuals are infected with the organism that causes bubonic plague, Yearnings pests. Plague appears in about 15 states, with most cases occurring in the west.

According to the Centers for Disease and Prevention, 1,000 to 3,000 people are infected annually worldwide. DRP. Thomas Friend, health commissioner of New York City, indicates that half of all cases in the United States originate in Santa Fee County of New Mexico. The large rodent population in Santa Fee County is the suggested cause of the large number of infections in the area. Coyotes, badgers, rabbits, deer, goats, camel’s cats, and moieties dogs can all transmit the flea to human beings.

Now that an understanding of the amount of damage such a small microorganism can cause has been developed, let’s examine the actual life of Yearnings pests. “The reason why Y. pests is so successful is because of their elusiveness to the host’s immune system and their ability to suppress it. Y. pests produces two anti-phagocyte antigens, Fl antigen and Wad antigen. These antigens are both required for virulence and are only produced when the organism grows at 37 degrees Celsius temperatures, which explains why fleas, whose body temperatures are lower than that, can act as a vector.

Y. pests can also resist phagocytes by injecting macrophages and immune cells with HOPS (Yearnings Outer Proteins). The HOPS are able to create pours in the cell, allowing more HOPS to get into the cytoplasm and limit phagocytes” (Arnold). Arnold, Paul. “How Does Yearnings Pests Attack and Spread? ” Bright Hub: The Hub for Bright Minds. Seep 24, 2009. Bright Hub Inc. Feb. 16, 2010. Catalina, Kristin. Immersion Pests. ” American Society for Microbiology. 5/12/2003. American Society for Microbiology. Feb. 16, 2010. “What is the Bubonic Plague?. ” Lempel. Com. 26 Seep 2013 .

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