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Profit maximization and wealth maximization are two distinctive objectives when it comes to financial management

SUDANESE JOURNAL OF PAEDIA TRICIANS

VOLUME 9,

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY STEP BY STEP
GUIDE FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
Haydar El Hadi Babikir1, Ali Babikir A!/, Mabuo M Abed e!Wahab 2.

Introduction
A scientific research becomes an important component to
qualify . for the Clinical MD in Paediatrics and child health, awarded by ·the Sudan Medical Specializations Board. It is a partial fulfillment research submitted before sitting to the second part. The Paediatric Training Committee is responsible for helping the graduate students with every possible weapon to accomplish their research. This article is a mean to step forward.

A research proposal is a very difficult writing, which is made when v:~\~~ went through the highest academic steps of education. It the first thing that should be done by the researcher in the case he/or she wants to make the research successful. It provides the rationale for the proposed research. It also shows the researcher’s awareness ofthe subject. 1

Research is defined as a careful, systematic investigation m some filed of knowledge, undertaken to establish facts or
principles or to find answers to a problem 2. According to
Kerlinger (1986) “scientific research is a systematic, controlled empirical and critical investigation of propositions about the presumed relationships about various phenomenon” 3 Bulmer in 1977 stated: ‘Nevertheless sociological research, as research, is primarily committed to establishing systematic, reliable and valid knowledge about the social world’ 5 .

These guidelines are meant to help the graduate student to
present his/her proposal ideas in a strong, concise and systematic manner, to be read with a few simple and direct purposes. Before proceeding the
researcher has to insure that the research 1s feasible, i.e. the research is ethical and potentially viable. A formal written consent is usually needed.

It is both unnecessary and unwise to start by preparing a
comprehensive, detailed project proposal. The student has to produce a preliminary project paper of no more than five pages. It is important, although quite commonly overlooked is that, the proposal is generally written in present and future tense, whereas, the dissertation or thesis is always written in the past tense, as it is a report of a completed study.

SUDANESE JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICIANS

VOLUME9,

Format of a Research Question
This is the most important step in any research. , It is the foundation for further development of the . research proposal (i.e. objectives, methodology, work plans and budget). There should be a question or a problem which requires an answer or a solution. A well defined research question makes it easier to review the literature. It drives the entire study. A well known and tested method is needed to answer or solve the research question. 5 Therefore, a researcher cannot be guided · by a tentative answer i.e., a hypothesis.

Research proposals serve a number of purposes. Members of a
thesis or dissertation committee read the proposal with a few simple and direct purposes 6 :
1- To determine what the researcher wants to do, .
2- To establish why the research is important, convmcmg and
worth undertaking.
3- To understand how he/she wishes to do it. Proposal writing en

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